AN IN-DEPTH STUDY OF NAKLANKI GEETA
BY SHIRAZ PRADHAN
“All fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no closer to answer the question, what are photons (light particles)? Of course every rascal thinks he knows the answer, but he is deluding himself.” — Albert Einstein, quoted in Raymond W. Lam Seasonal Affective Disorder and Beyond, 1998.
In the conclusion of my previous article, Concepts of Modern Cosmology and Astrophysics in Two Ismaili Ginans, Choghadia and Mul Gayatri, I had asked a question: What was before the BIG BANG?
The Hadron Collider research at CERN, Switzerland is promising to reveal the deepest secrets of our universe. Hot topics of science today are the search for Dark Matter, a Theory of Every Thing (TOE) which involves the reconciliation of the Quantum Theory with the Theory of Relativity, and the State of the Universe before the Big Bang. Is it possible that some of our ancient ginans have answers that Hadron Collider Research is trying to come up with?
The focus of our study is a Granth, Naklanki Geeta,  composed by Syad Imam Shah around 1400 CE. Our study will reveal that this ancient Granth, composed when the Incas Civilization and the Temples at Ankor Wat had begun to crumble and Europe was shaking off the vertigo of Dark Ages and entering the Renaissance period, is one of the most scientifically advanced and compact ancient document, besides the Ikhwa-al safa (The Brethren of Purity, 900 CE.). It touches on all ideas of Hadron Collider Research presented above. But before we delve in to it, I present below a table that puts Naklanki Geta on a comparative timescale of Scientific Development in the West over last 1000 years (see Table 1) as well as provide a brief introduction to the ginan.
I shall be presenting this article in three parts beginning with this one which is divided into the following sections:
- Higher level view of Naklanki Geeta: Hindu Myths from Puranas
- Basic Sciences in Naklanki Geeta
2.1 Units of measurements
2.2 Formation of cloud and rain cycle
2.3 Relative motions of earth and the sun
- Receding Demarcation line between physics and metaphysics
- Understanding science and physics – I:
4.1 Uncertainty Principle
4.2 Concept of Quanta
4.3 Quantum Mechanics
4.5 Dark Matter and Rainbow Gravity
4.6 Part I – Link up above sciences with Naklanki Geeta
4.7 Nur – A Brief Discussion of concept of Light
The above will conclude Part I. Then in Part II, to be published at a later date, I shall deal with:
- Understanding science and physics – II:
1.1 Super String/M Theories and Multiple Universes,
1.2 Ekpyrotic Model of Creation
1.3 Link up with Naklanki Geeta
- Theory of Every Thing (TOE)
- Mind of the Creator
- Challenge of the Future
Finally, in another sequel I will discuss the nature of Light, origin of “consciousness and understanding” and nature of divine ecstasy.
Table 1: Development of Scientific Ideas Over Last 1000 Years.
|Name||Scientific Contribution||Date and Place of Birth||Comments|
|Syad Imam Shah||Composer of hymns and poems of Khoja Ismaili Origin||b. 1430 CE,
Uuch Shariff, India.
|Two hundred years ahead of the Western astronomers and mathematicians, he provided the basis for calculation of the relative speed of earth and sun’s motions and also ideas on multiple Universes, nature of photon, etc (see text for Summary of his contributions)|
|Nicolaus Copernicus||Proposed the revolutionary theory that the earth and other planets revolved around the sun.||1473–1543 (Poland)||Until this time the Catholic Church held the view that the earth was the center of the Universe. Afraid of persecution by the Church, his thesis was not published until after his death.|
|Galileo Galilei||Inventor of the telescope and confirmed Copernicus’s thesis of sun being the center around which the planets revolved||1564–1642 (Italy)|
|Johannes Kepler||Developed the laws of planetary Motion||1571–1630 (Germany)|
|Issac Newton||Developed the Theory of Gravity and Laws of Planetary Motions||1643–1726 (United Kingdom)||Descartes of France developed the Theory of Gravity at about the same time as Newton. There is a historical dispute as to who actually discovered gravity|
|Max Planck||His work on Blackbody radiation led to the understanding of Quantum Physics||1858–1947 (Germany)||He was the first to propose the concept of quanta of light and his work with Albert Einstein laid the foundation of Quantum Physics|
|Albert Einstein||Developed the theories of Special and General Relativity||1879–1955 (Germany), died in Princeton, USA||His work contributed to understanding of the relationship between mass and energy and the limit of cosmic speed.. His work also contributed to the understanding of Quantum Physics|
|Werner Heisenberg||The father of Uncertainty Principle which led to the development of Quantum Physics||1901–1976 (Germany)||Provided fundamental understanding of the nature of matter|
|Paul Dirac||Laid the foundation of Quantum Physics and the Anti-Matter theory||1902–1984 (United Kingdom), died in Florida, USA||His work consolidated Quantum Physics. In 1928-35 he predicted the existence of anti-particle of electron. Positron was soon discovered in the laboratory soon after|
|Niels Bohr||Provided understanding of Atomic Structure of matter and Quantum Theory||1885–1962 (Denmark)||He is reputed have a heated debate with Einstein during which Einstein stated that God did not play dice, to which Niels replied, leave God out of it.|
|Roger Penrose||Mathematician and Physicist||1931– (United Kingdom)||Worked with Professor Hawkings to develop the Big Bang Theory|
|Stephen Hawkings||His work confirmed the Big Bang Theory and the existence of Black Holes||1942– (United Kingdom)||He is a supporter of the many-world interpretation of quantum mechanics|
|Paul Townsend||Developed the M and P-Theories which states that there may be multiple dimensions and universes and that we may living on a brane of multiple Brane universe||String Theory is part of the M- Theory and proposes that the universe may have 11 dimensions. It agrees well with Relativity, Quantum Physics, Supergravity and other theories of physics and is a leading candidate for Theory of Everything(TOE), the holy Grail of Physics|
|Paul Steinhardt (Princeton) Neil Turok (Cambridge)
Petre Horva, Ed Witten, (Princeton) Justin Khoury, Burt Ovrut(Pennsylvania) (Princeton)
|New blood Cosmologists expanding the ideas of “Where did the universe come from?” and Recycled Universe Theory and Ekpyrotic Universe||Researchers at Princeton, Cambridge and Penn State Universities||Team of Cosmologist and particle physicist proposing cutting-edge theories of the Origin of Universe|
AN INTRODUCTION TO NAKLANKI GEETA
Part of the vast treasure of Ismaili ginanic literature of Southern Asia, Naklanki Geeta is a sacred text that is longer than a ginan, and hence called a granth. It was composed by Syad Imam Shah, who had composed several other granths, namely Mul Gayatri, Athar Ved Gayatri, and Moto Das Avtar. Many of the granths these deal with the creation of the universe and point to the presence of divine guidance in the world.
Naklanki Geeta was written by Syad Imam Shah around 1470 CE, just when England was fighting the Hundred Year War and Incas Civilization had crumbled and Copernicus had begun to grapple with the idea of planetary motion and had proposed that sun was the center of the solar system. However, his discoveries would not be published until a century later in 1580 CE.
The subject matter covered by Naklanki Geeta is vast and could be construed as a Science Textbook. Besides touching on fundamental scientific themes, at its core, Naklanki Geeta incorporates some of most advanced ideas of modern science.
The language of Naklanki Geeta is a mixture of prose and poetry, Its rhythm is similar to the shloks of Hindu Puranas and other ancient Hindu scriptures. If Syad Imam Shah had written this condensed and complex grantha for the newly converted Khoja’s of the Indian Sub-continent, then it is evident that the intellectual capacity and thrust for knowledge of his audience in 15th Century CE must have been extraordinary. It is not far-fetched to imagine that these converted trading class and agrarian people must have gathered around Sayd Imam Shah as he traveled through Khathiawad, Sind and, Multan, in communal village forecourts surrounded by their Timba, thatched huts, asking about the mysteries of the universe and such esoteric subjects. Collectively this granth together with other granths such as Mul Gayatri, and Choghadias, indicates that they were certainly in response to demands and craving for higher knowledge from a newly converted people.
Despite the fact that vocabulary of the granth is rustic, the scientific ideas it presents and the examples and comparisons it provides to explain most advance theories are simple, elegant and within common everyday experiences.
- A High Level View of Naklanki Geeta – Hindu Trinity
To appreciate its depth and gain a meaningful understanding of Naklanki Geeta we would need to understand the nature and roles of the deities of Hindu Trinity.
According to Hindu Mythology, the creation of our universe is cyclical. It is created, it exists for a period of time at the end of which it is destroyed. The three deities of this cycle of creation, preservation and destruction are Braham, Vishnu and Shankara. Above them is the Supreme Creator Shree Narayana. This Trinity is depicted in the flow diagram, Figure 1 below.
Figure 1: Hindu Trinity involved in Creation and Destruction of our Four Dimensional Universe: (‘Shree’ is respectful appellation for the deities of the Hindu Trinity).
2. Basic Sciences in Naklanki Geeta:
Question and Answers Between Brahma and a Devotee
Firstly, I present the simple scientific ideas of Naklanki Geeta. These ideas are presented in question and answer sessions between Shree Brahma and a devotee or a momin.
The devotee is asking questions of phenomenon pertaining to our four dimensional Universe. It is clear that as the creator of our four dimensional Universe, Brahma (Figure 1, above) has knowledge of its mysteries. He created our universe by the direct command of Shree Narayan. Explaining this Naklnki Geeta states.
Shree Satgur Birmah ho vach: Nau khand pruthmi nu mandan manda te Bhirma, Vishnu, Mahesar (Shankara) ee tran dev mirat lok mahe aaviya Che. Shree Narayan ho vacha: Shree Bhirma tame pruthmi mahe jaai khal arabh karo.
Shree Birmah stated: To commence the creation of the universe (which contains the earth) Brahma, Vishnu and Shankara came into the realm of the Universe by direct command of Shree Narayan. His command was: “Go commence the play of creation.”
Continuing the question and answer session, Shree Brahma then proceeds to give information which is fundamental to the basic understanding of the universe. Examples of these are:
2.1 Units of measurements
2.2 Formation of cloud and rain cycle
2.3 Relative motions of earth and the sun
2.1 Units of Measurement
Like modern science text books, Naklanki Geeta presents an explanation and a table of the units of measurements that it uses. To my knowledge, no other ginans or grantha have any reference to such fundamental units of measurement nor does any of the Hindu literature of the era contain such a clear table of measurement. The fundamental length measurement according to Naklanki Geeta is a Mustard (Rai) seed. Table 2 provides the details of this measurement system.
Table 2: Fundamental System of measurement from Naklanki Geeta; 1 Jojan = 8 Miles (12.8 Kilometers), based on British System, Wikipedia.
Next Nanlanki Geeta provides a Table of Numeral System for measuring astronomical distances. It has an accurate concept of the vastness of space and of the size of the universe. Conceptually, Table 3 will provide an idea of the enormity of space that Naklanki Geeta is dealing with.
Table 3: Numeral System used to Measure Astronomical Distances.
Using the above measures, Naklanki Geeta states that one of the galaxies has an accurate distance of 74883479976555521 Jojans. Based on roughly 8 Miles to a Jojan this is equivalent to: 599068000000000000 (6 x 10+17) Miles or 958059000000000000 (10+18) Kilometers.
Shree Satgu Bhirma ho vacha: Nuv Pandam, adtalish Nil, chontrees Kharaw, Augnoter Abaj, Satanu Karod, Paansath Lakh, panchavan Hazar, ne Aakvish Jojan sarvalo che.
Shree Satgur Bhirma said: 9 Pandam, 48 Nil, 34 Kharaw, 79 Abaj, 97 Karod, 65 Lakh, 55 Hazar, 21 Jojan is the addition of the Galaxy.
2.2 Rain and Cloud Formation
The section of the grantha that deals with this phenomenon shows the simple terms in which Naklanki Geeta explains complex thoughts. The mystery of rain and cloud formation is brought in a conversation between Shree Bhirma and Shree Narayan.
Q: Shree Birmah: What is the secret of water on earth?
A: Shree Narayan: Water condenses from the sky above and comes down over the snow covered Himalayas. This water then finds its way to the oceans. In this way all the water of the seven seas was originally hidden high above in the sky.
Q: Surprised, Shree Birmah asks: How is the sky able to contain and retain all the water. Why does it not fall to the earth all at once?
A: Shree Narayan: The mystery of the water in the sky is similar to the love that iron has for magnet. Just as a when iron sees magnet and runs to it, water has similar love for the sky. The sky continually attracts water from the earth which rises to the sky and then comes down as rain and this is how rain cycle works.
2.3 Relative Speed Between Sun and Earth
Next, Naklanki Geeta tackles relative speed between Sun and Earth. The point to note here is that the end result is not accurate or consistent with modern calculation but the fact that six hundred years ago this ancient document had the boldness to tackle the subject of planetary motion, when the most prevalent ideas of Universe were static spheres. During this period earth was considered flat. The simplicity with which Naklanki Geeta tackles this complex subject is remarkable.
The basic measure of time in this section is the blink of an eye.
Shree Naraayan vacha suno ho Satgur: Suraj ugme ne aathme tan sudhi aavo chale che, je ek aankh ni palak mahe shastra gau, jiya thi ugme ne aathme tiya thi jatle palak aankh ni pade tetla shstra ( thousand) gaun suraj chale.
Shree Narayan said, listen to me O Satgur: from the time it rises to the time it sets, the Sun moves in such a way that in the blink of an eye it moves thousand Gaun, and however many blinks of eye occurs from sunrise to sunset, that many Gaun it moves. (One Jojan = 4 Gaun = 8 miles or 12.8 Kilometers).
Assuming that there are 10 blinks per minute and the time from sunrise to sunset is 8 hours, then the sun has covered a linear distance of:
10 x 8 x 60 x 1000 x 0.25 * 8 * 1.6 = 15 million kilometers.
Over 24 hour period the relative distance covered is:
15,360,000 x 3 = appx. 45 million kilometers
And in 365 days the distance covered = 17 billion kilometers.
Making simplify assumptions that the orbit of the earth around the moon is circular and not elliptical, above linear distance yields the radius of the earth from the sun to be: 2.7 billion kilometers.
The actual radius to the sun is 152 million kilometers. Naklanki Geeta calculated distance is thus 100 times larger than the actual.
3. The Receding Demarcation Line between Physics and Metaphysics
Metaphysics is the theory of being and knowing. It would pertain to those areas of being which are beyond the limits of science and physics. In modern times, the work of one mathematician/physicist more than anyone else has erased the line between physic and metaphysics. Until recently scientific community was unprepared to concede any ground to metaphysic, and was unprepared to accept that phenomenon bordering on strange and miraculous could fall within the realm of science.
Roger Penrose, who worked closely with Stephen Hawkins to develop the Theory of Big Bang Origin of Universe, in his book, Shadows of the Mind  provides evidence that despite advances in sophistication of modern computers, Artificial Intelligence (AI) will not mimic human mind. What he concludes is that there is a Non-Computational aspect of the mind that cannot be mimicked by the computer. He provides powerful arguments that the “effects of human understanding cannot be simulated in any kind of computational terms and effectively the human faculty of being able to ‘understand’ is something that must be achieved by the Non-computational activity of the brain”.
What this Non-Computational quotient of the mind is, is a subject of speculation. But the point is that science has begun to accept this metaphysical dimension of Matter, for mind is nothing but molecules arranged and connected in a certain manner which miraculously bestows it the faculty of consciousness and understanding. It is the mysterious action of Non-computational aspect of the mind that brings about ‘consciousness’ And it is this ‘consciousness’ which bestows human mind the faculties to comprehend higher truths.
4. Understanding Science and Physics – I
To understand the advanced ideas presented in Naklanki Geeta, it would be necessary for us to undertake a journey through developments in higher sciences and especially Particle Physics and Quantum Mechanics over the last century and then trace Naklanki Geeta’s footsteps and link it up with these scientific ideas. It is in this respect that Naklanki Geeta begins to shine. In this Part I, we shall review:
4.1 Uncertainty Principle
4.2 Concept of Quanta
4.3 Quantum Mechanics
4.5 Dark Matter and Rainbow Gravity
4.6 Conclusion to Part I – Trace the footsteps and link up with Naklanki Geeta
4.1 Uncertainty Principle 
Uncertainty Principle by Werner Heisenberg is one of the founding pillars of quantum mechanics. It states that if one tries to measure the speed of a particle, one changes its position and if one tries to locate its position, the speed changes. What this means is that precise measurement of any physical system will disturb its equilibrium and there will always be an element of uncertainty in the measurement. If you observe a pendulum, its rest position is continually changing and it is not possible to measure it accurately. With specific reference to photons (particles that make up light), science is still baffled if photons are particles or waveform. Therefore, if at any stage we try to accurately determine a photon’s position, we would alter its speed and vice versa. and therefore uncertainty will remain regarding both its position and speed. This throws ‘Scientific Determinism’ out of the window. Nothing is absolute. Nature is very deliberate about this. At a stroke Uncertainty Principle puts nature in the realm of metaphysics. Everything becomes relative. God does not want to hand over the control of the Universe or Universes to crazy scientists! The age of “Absolutes” was over with Renaissance and the Dutch philosopher Spinoza finally crushed the very pedestal upon which “Absolute” was anchored. Emerging science quickly realized that the world was relative. And Einstein’s Relativity sealed this realization.
4.2 Development of the Concept of Quanta
When Max Planck  suggested that radiation is always emitted in little packets called quanta, little did he realize that his idea would revolutionize physics. Quant is plural of quantum which means a minimum quantity of an entity. For example, a photon is a quantum of light. What Max Planck discovered is that the energy or the intensity of an electromagnetic radiation is proportional to the frequency of the molecule emitting the energy and is always emitted in small chunks called the quanta, or the photons.
Coupled with Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, the strange and enigmatic behavior of photons which I will describe later began puzzling scientists. This would lay the foundation of quantum mechanics which is basically a science to understand the nature of things at sub-atomic level. The quote by Albert Einstein at the beginning of this article aptly describes the elusive nature of light particles or photons.
4.3 Emergence of Quantum Mechanics 
No idea of science is more strange and mysterious than that of quantum mechanics. The combined work of Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Albert Einstein, Paul Dirac, Niels Bohr and others laid the foundation of quantum mechanics. They all started from the premise of the strange nature of photon. Quantum mechanics stated that at atomic level the rules of Relativity broke down and particle and sub-particles followed rules that are strange and mysterious. In 1927, the Legendary Solvay Conference in Brussels which was attended by no less than 27 Noble Laureates including Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Max Planck, Niels Bohr and Madam Curie deliberated on the mysteries of Quantum Mechanics (Figure 2). 
Figure 2: Legendary Solvay Conference of 1927.
So what ideas of Quantum Mechanics did these Scientist deliberate on?
Rule 1 of Quantum Mechanics: A single photon could be at two places at the same time. 
It was found that a single light particle or a photon could be at two different places at the same time. When this rule was confirmed in the laboratory with the famous double slit experiment, it threw the entire physic community into confusion. What was found was that a single photon fired at a double slit screen actually registered its presence at two location as if had passed through both the slits. Where was the photon at any given time? This introduced probability and uncertainty in science.
Rule 2 of Quantum Mechanics – Copenhagen Interpretation 
Work of Niels Bohr and Warner Heisenberg commonly known as Copenhagen Interpretation provide an explanation of why the same quantum particle such as a photon “may behave in different ways”. It states that “a quantum particle does not exist in one state or another, but in all of its possible states at once. It is only when we observe its state that a quantum particle is essentially forced to choose one probability and that is the state we observe. The total of all states in which a quantum, such as a photon can exist as a particle or a wave makes the “wave function” of the particle. When we make an observation the “wave function” collapses and we force the photon to take a specific position.
In 1935, Erwin Schrodinger proved the above Interpretation in a famous mind experiment which I describe next.
Schrodinger’s Cat – Parallel Universe 
After almost eighty years scientists are still struggling to come to a conclusion if the nature of light is waveform or particle and if a single photon could be at two places at the same time. To demonstrate this strange photon behavior, Dr. Schrodinger devised a mind-experiment in which a cat was put in a steel box. A flask of poison was put above the cat. A trigger of radioactive substance was arranged to trip a hammer that would break the poison flask. A steel lid was now put over the box. If the radioactive substance decayed and emitted an atom, it would trip the hammer, break the poison flask which would kill the cat! (see Figure 3).
There was no way of knowing if the radioactive substance had decayed, emitted the atom that tripped the hammer, which would kill the cat. Therefore the cat was living in parallel universes. One in which it was alive and the other in which it was dead! This introduced idea of many-world in to quantum mechanics.
The equations that governed this strange photon behavior are not limited to atomic particles. They are equally applicable to large objects as well.
Figure 3: Scrodinger’s Cat in Parallel Universes.
Rule 3 of Quantum Mechanics – Quantum Coherence 
An additional characteristic arising from the “multiple world of quantum mechanics” is quantum coherence. This refers to a “circumstances when large number of particles can collectively cooperate in single quantum state as being at position A or position B.” For example we have seen a school of fish collectively darting about as if controlled by a single mind. Another example of this is superconductivity when the electrical resistance drops to zero when the environment temperature drops to minimum. If the temperature of the environment rises, it destroys quantum coherence and superconductivity is lost.
Rule 4 of Quantum Mechanics – Entanglement
Two entangled photons modify the behavior of each other even when they are separated over long distances and no communication has taken place between them . This is very much like when one twin living in one country has an accident and the other twin in a different country experiences the trauma. This rule, called the “Spooky action over a distance” was disliked by Einstein, who declared that Quantum Mechanics was an incomplete theory. He also did not like the idea of probabilities to determine the exact location of a light particle. This he said was inexact science.
In 2014 the Entanglement property of quantum mechanics was proved in the laboratory. Scientists were able to catch the ghost of Schrodinger’s cat on a camera film in the laboratory . In an experiment a yellow and a red Entangled photons were used. The yellow photon was fired at a stencil of a cat. The red photon which had not touched the stencil was directly fired at a camera film.
Strangely, when the film was developed the ghost of the stencil cat was on the camera film even when the red photon had never touched or seen the stencil and yellow photon had not communicated with the red photon, Figure 4.
Figure 4: The Ghost of Schrodinger’s Cat Caught on Camera film.
4.4 Anti-Particle 
Most elementary particles have an associated anti-particle with the same mass and opposite electrical charge. An electron’s anti-particle is a positron. The idea of anti-particle did not take firm root until 1928-35 when Paul Dirac predicted and proved the existence of positron which is an anti-particle of an electron. It is a well-known that when a particle meets with its anti-particle they attack each other and annihilate each other. The products of this reaction are energy and photons. The reason we do not see free anti-matter in our universe is because just after Big Bang, matter and anti-matter fought with each other and at the end of this reaction, because of preponderance of matter over anti-matter, all the anti-matter was destroyed and only matter remained.
4.5 Dark Matter and Rainbow Gravity
The elusive Dark Matter is thought to contribute 3/4 of the mass of the Universe, yet scientists have been unable to find any evidence of it. Recently scientist at Durham University found that matter seemingly, Dark interacted strangely with a galaxy far away in space and bend rays of light more than predicted by theory . The hope is that the Hadron Collider at CERN will be able to shed more light on this elusive Dark Matter.
Rainbow Gravity  is thought to be the missing link to reconcile the Theory of Relativity (which deals with the large scale Universe) with Quantum Mechanics (which deals with the microscopic universe of atoms and sub-atomic particles. The theory of Rainbow Gravity suggests that gravity interacts differently with cosmos by varying wavelength of light.
According to Einstein’s Relativity, massive objects like planets warp spacetime and give rise to gravity. Anything travelling close to such warped spacetime, including light takes a curving path. In everyday physics this path should not depend on the energy of the particles moving through spacetime. However in Rainbow Gravity, it does. The color of light is determined by its frequency. Hence according to Rainbow Gravity, gravity’s effect would be felt differently by different colors of the rainbow depending upon their frequencies. The result of this is that light particles (photons) of different colors would travel on slightly different paths and with different speeds though spacetime.
4.6 Conclusion to Part I – Link up of Naklanki Geeta With Modern Science
4.6.1 What is Light?
In spiritual senses the concept of Light (Nur) is already difficult to decipher. In mystical terms it is often said that a mystic’s heart is illumined by Light of God! Several questions arise. What then is the exact nature of this Light and what is its source. Is there a rarefied ocean of this Light that pervades everything? And how does a heart receive this Light and how is this Light given? What is the deciding factor of who receives it?
Although this is not the subject of our discussion in the present article and merits a separate article to explore it, I dare say that there are hints of quantum phenomenon involved in the nature of this exchange. In other words, is the Light given or received in packets or “quanta” related to the vibrational frequency of the person receiving it? Max Planck’s observation of quanta in the exchange of photon and electrons during electromagnetic radiation involved two quantities: Intensity or energy of radiation and its frequency. There are several ginans that hint that the mystical process leading to ecstasy and “seeing the Light” have vibrational characteristics . Every “body” has a natural frequency. Does “Light” exchange involve the excitation of this natural frequency? If so, is it possible to externally manipulate the frequency?
The fact that divine substance that irradiates the heart is often referred to as “Light of God” or “Divine Light” is suggestive that this divine substance must bear a strong resemblance to physical light for such an analogy to be used. And if such an analogy is validated by its usage over millenniums in all cultures and all human myths, than it is possible that this “Light” and its exchange may be subject to scientific explanation and rules which may not be within our grasp at the present time. But the receding line between physics and metaphysics, advances in neurosciences and particle physics and the deeper we journey into the sub-atomic world of quantum mechanics, suggest that such a quantum explanation of “Light” may be possible.
One of the most lucid and enigmatic of the Qur’anic verses is the Light Verse (Sura Nur, 35) where Allah provides an understanding of the nature of Light.
Allah is Light (Nur) of the heavens and the earth.
The parable of His Light is a niche wherein is a lamp –
the lamp as in a glass, the glass as it were a glittering star –
lit from a blessed olive tree,
neither eastern or western,
whose oil almost lights up,
though fire should not touch it.
Light upon light.
Allah guides to his Light whomsoever he wishes.
Allah draws parables for mankind,
And Allah has knowledge of all things
Naklanki Geeta takes up this theme of nature of light and takes us right into the heart of the scientific theories we have described above. At first glance when we read Naklanki Geeta it is possible to miss this point altogether as it is embedded in a sequence of creation of entities from the Origin. Scrutiny of this sequence, which is presented in Table 4, reveals that there are several forms of light that evolved from the original creation. This opens up a vast area of speculations about nature of “Light”.
Table 4: Sequence of Creation from Origin.
The key to above Table is as follows:
A. First there is the creative Fiat, from which comes Bluish Chaos (NIL)
B. Bluish Chaos transforms into its opposite (NIL(+) to ANIL (-)
C. From the interaction of NIL and ANIL comes nothingness or silence (SOON)
D. From this nothingness finally emerges divine light (NUR). This is the phase at which an important transformation begins to happen. That which was a rarefied idea begins to assume a physical form. A metaphysical idea becomes a physical one. Does NUR referred to in the Sura Nur of the Holy Qur’an refer to physical aspect of light or does the concept NUR as mentioned in Al-Nur refer to something above and beyond this?
E. This divine light,NUR manifests characteristic of intensity (TEJ). And it seems that it is this aspect of light that merits a verse of the Qur’an (Sura Nur, 35)
F. After several additional transformations, this divine light finally assumes physical luminocity (prakash)
G. Ajvalo, which is a term used to denote the light which makes things visible is later used in the body of the text of Naklanki Geeta where it is associated with alteration of day and night due to motions of planets.
These forms of light extracted from Table 4 are shown in Table 5.
Table 5: Extract of forms of Light from Table 4.
How do each of these forms of light relate to one another? Are they basically photons with different energies, intensities and frequencies or are they fundamentally different derivative of the photons? The answer(s) to this question bears a close relationship to Rainbow Gravity and additionally will have significant repercussion for science and Naklanki Geeta touches on this very issue.
From Table 4 and Table 5 we see that the source of what we call “Light” and what Naklanki Geeta calls “bluish light”, NIL is the supreme Creator (Niranjan Narayan, unseen Creator, Transformation #1, Table 4). In steps, as outlined in Table 4, this spiritual concept of light begins to evolve into a physical science concept of luminance (prakash or ajvalo). What starts as a rarefied idea begins to shine forth as light that has physical characteristics.
Naklanki Geeta has four ideas that encompass the theories of physics that I have outlined (I must stress that Naklanki Geeta does not explicitly mention Uncertainty, quantum physics or quanta. However, according to modern science, the transformations of light and hence photons that such transformations involve depend implicitly on the scientific theories I have outlined).
Idea 1: Eighteen or Thirty Six Elementary Particles?
The Standard Model of Universe states that our universe was created from a Big Bang Singularity and in the aftermath of this explosion eighteen elementary particles were created which form the basis of our material universe. In my previous article on Cosmology I had shown that Mul Gayatri by Syad Imam Shah had close correspondence with the Standard Model and showed a list of 18 entities that were created which had close resemblance to the 18 elementary particles of the Standard Model. Naklanki Geeta on the other hand shows a remarkable departure from the Standard Model. In fact Naklanki Geeta states that not eighteen but thirty six elementary particles were created after Big Bang.
Ahunkar madhe chatrees avtar dharjante ho swamiji
During the era of chaos, there were thirty six avatars (elementary particles).
Currently Particle Physics has no such mention of 36 elementary particles As in Mul Gyatri, Naklanki Geeta outlines the exact sequence of transformations (Table 4) of these particle from the Origin in which are embedded different transformations of Light which touch on the enigmatic nature of the photon.
Idea 2: Energetic Creation of the Universe
In several ginans, creation and origin of the Universe is describes as from a bluish chaos. There is no direct mention of a Big Bang. Currently in the Physics community there is speculation that there was never a Big Bang and that the Universe(s) simply exists without beginning and end. Again, hope is that Hadron Collider research will shed light on this aspect.
Partham Nil veran dhandukar
In the beginning there was bluish chaos.
In scientific terms light is composed of photons and as stated earlier a photon is a quantum of light. In reality photons are essentially a part of the electromagnetic radiation. Different components such as gamma rays, X-rays, visible light including ultra-violet light, infra-red light and micro-waves are forms of electromagnetic radiation at different energies and frequencies. Such a spectrum of radiation is shown in Figure 5  of which visible light (rainbow) is but a small portion.
Figure 5: Electromagnetic Spectrum which includes the visible rainbow.
The very left side of this spectrum comprises:
- Gamma Rays which have very short wavelengths and are extremely energetic.
- Next are X-rays (which are slightly less energetic and of increasing wavelength).
- These are followed by Ultraviolet light.
- This is followed by Blue light and visible light as in a rainbow.
- The Big Bang was an extremely hot explosion and hence the resulting cosmic soup was highly energetic and hence more typical of the left hand of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. In this respect Naklanki Geeta and Mul Gayatri have correctly described this phase as a bluish chaos.
- It is important to bear in mind that at Big Bang and a short duration after it, only the very left portion of the Electromagnetic Spectrum was in existence. Due to the high energy of Big Bang, elementary particles had not had chance to cool and transform and hence the longer wavelength components of the electromagnetic spectrum such as visible light (ajvalo) had not formed. Hence it is appropriate to refer to this early phase as opaque rather than truly bluish phase. However it is clear that Naklanki Geeta is referring to this phase as bluish as symbolically it is indicative of the energetic phase of creation.
Idea 3: Anti-Particle
Most elementary particles have an associated anti-particle with the same mass and opposite electrical charge. An electron’s anti-particle is a positron. The idea of anti-particle did not take firm root until 1928-35 when Paul Dirac predicted and proved the existence of positron which is an anti-particle of an electron.
Reference to Table 5 shows that six hundred years ago, Naklanki Geeta already had the idea of anti-particle. In Gujarati and Hindi, a word with a prefix ‘aa’ signifies the opposite of the base word. Table 6 shows representative example of such words:
Table 6: Examples of word and their opposite with addition of ‘aa’.
Naklanki Geeta states that in the beginning there was bluish chaos (NIL). Next transformation to follow this was ANIL. Following the analogy of Table 6, it follows that NIL represents a bluish Electromagnetic radiation as shown in Figure 2 and ANIL would represent its opposite. It is a well known fact that particle and anti-particles in physics can interact and annihilate each other producing photons. The question arises that if NIL/ANIL was indeed the reaction of photons or the very left portion of Electromagnetic Radiation spectrum with its anti-particle or its opposite, what would be the product of such an interaction?
In his popular book QED, Richard Feyman, Noble Prize Winner  who assisted in making the atom bomb in the Manhattan Project during the 2nd World War wrote:
Every particle in nature has an amplitude to move backwards in time, and therefore an anti-particle of Photon looks exactly the same in all respects when it travels backwards in time…so it is its own anti-particles.
Richard Feyman’s quote at once deepens the mystery of photon. How can a photon be its own anti-particle? This theme is taken up in Idea #4 of Naklanki Geeta, namely that of Photon Epoch and Photon Decay.
Idea 4: Photon Decay or Quantum Coherence?
Right from the time of chaotic creation of the universe(s), photons have been a key component of the hot cosmic soup of creation. In essence this hot soup comprised photon, electrons, and protons. Soon after the Big Bang this hot cosmic soup began to cool. Several interesting things happened at this point. The speeds and energies of particles began to diminish. This allowed the free electrons and protons to combine with each other and produce free atoms of hydrogen. Photons that were in the hot cosmic soup, because of their indeterminacy of being particles or waveform and the uncertainty in their position and velocity generally escaped combining with other matter. This resulted in photons remaining decoupled from matter and free to travel freely in the universe. In cosmology this phase of the Big Bang is known as the Photon Epoch or Photon Decoupling Era . These free photons of the Photon Epoch have survived from the original Big Bang and constitute the Comic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) or simply microwave radiation which we observe today. On the electromagnetic spectrum the microwave radiation is situated to right of the visible light due to the fact that it has diminished energy and hence its wavelength is much larger.
However, a critical review of the transformations of original light as presented by Naklanki Geeta shows these to be very different to above script. Table 4 is indicative of several things described below:
A. Photon Decay : This is a scenario in which the original “Bluish light” (Transformation #1, Table 4), transformed and the photons decayed in to lighter particles. The nature of these transformations is unclear but the words used in Naklanki Geeta to describe each of these individual transformed particles are derivatives of light and bear a close relationship to the general concept of light and hence photons.
Currently it is accepted that photons are massless and do not decay into lighter particles. The red shift of photons, as its energy diminishes, is not considered photon decay. However, speculation in the physics community is that photons may not be massless as originally thought. Research is in progress with the Hadron Collider, CERN in Switzerland to prove this. If this turns out to be true, speculation is that photons would have decayed into lighter particle(s), which would be truly massless and would be able to travel Faster than Light (FTL). Such an outcome will change everything. Firstly, Relativity which states that Speed of Light is the limit of cosmic speed will be challenged. How does Naklanki Geeta address this issue?
B. Do Photons have Mass? : To answer this question, we have to study the 36 entities that were created at the Origin, their sequence (Table 4) and the transformations of light that are embedded in Tables 4 and 5. Specifically we have to look at the transformation that happened before phase change of light in to luminosity (Prakas). At this transformation an important event happened that may explain the enigma that modern science is struggling with, namely the question if photon has a mass?
Transformation #16 and #17 from the top (Table 4) are of crucial importance. A very precise symbology is used to describe these transformations.
What Naklanki Geeta states is that commencing from the first transformation up to the 16th transformation what has been created is subtle and illusory (Maya) and without body or substance. Everything is opaque. The changes that are happening are invisible. There is no witness save the Supreme Creator. Then in the 17th transformation something strange happens. At that point what was illusory (Maya) becomes dense and assume a body (Kaya). This is a clear indication that created entities from this point have a mass. (In the Standard Model, Higgs Boson, a particle discovered in 2013 at CERN mediates and gives matter its mass, just as photons mediate and provide the electromagnetic force interaction between particles).
The transformation at #17 also provides a clue that photon may have some esoteric relationship with Higgs Boson. At the present, in Particle Physics, there is no established relationship but only a hypothetical relationship between Higgs Boson and Photons. This will add one more point to settle in the Theory of Every Thing (TOE).
If ongoing research at the Hadron Collider prove that photons do actually have mass, which Naklanki Geeta suggests, Einstein’s Relativity and many other theories such as Coulomb Law will come under question, as in such a scenario photons could have decayed into even lighter particles. In such a case the absolute speed of light may not be the cosmic limit of speed. The lighter particles from photon may be Faster than Light (FTL).
C. In a different scenario, a path that original light transformations of Table 4 could have taken brings us to the very heart of quantum mechanics and we approach the thin line that separates metaphysics from physics.
It is a fact that the photons from the hot cosmic soup at the Origin did not react with other matter and survived as CMBR. It is also a fact, according to modern science that photons do not decay. In this case Naklanki Geeta as stated earlier is in contradiction to modern science because it shows light evolving into sub-particle as in Table 4.
How do we reconcile this contradiction? According to quantum mechanics, so long as the sub-atomic world of particles is left undisturbed, it functions normally. In such a situation, particles could assume any positions or state they wish and there is no question if they are at location A or B or at several locations at the same time. In trying to understand this we may ask ourselves: Is the moon there, if we do not physically make an observation of it? In other word, the moon becomes visible only when we make an observation of it. In a similar fashion the state of a particle becomes definite only when an observation is made. The state of the cat in Schrodinger’s experiment becomes known only when the steel box is opened. At that point the cat is either found dead or alive.
What Naklanki Geeta is stating is that from the time at the Origin, light or photons were behaving normally. By quantum coherence, all photons, like a trade union were collectively behaving as a single body. By their elusive nature and by quantum coherence all photons had decided not to react with other matter and the Photon Decoupling happened as attested by modern science. But then something peculiar happened. Just as in the case of superconductivity, when the temperature of the environment gets high, quantum coherence is destroyed and particles begin to behave individually and randomly, so it was that as the hot cosmic soup began to cool, quantum coherence was partially destroyed and suddenly the solidarity between photons was lost and photons began to behave individually and randomly resulting in several possible scenarios:
- Majority of photons continued not to react with other matter and this resulted in these photons becoming the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)
- Some photons decayed in to lighter particles (as already discussed)
- Some photons reacted with Higgs Boson and assumed mass (as already discussed
- And some photons underwent a “quantum waveform collapse” due to the shock of cooling. So what started out as an invisible or opaque and quantum coherent phenomenon became a visible light as prakash and ajvalo due to a quantum waveform collapse. What was metaphysical became physical and this was most probably due to quantum action
4.6.2 Dark Matter and Rainbow Gravity
The enigmatic transformations of light per Naklanki Geeta suggest that light particles may have a mass. Thus far science has ignored this factor in calculation of the mass of the universe. The word Maya used at transformation #17, Table 4, is very interesting. In its original meaning in Sanskrit it represents the snare gods have created to bind humans to the material world. Maya is the illusory, magical mist that pervades the universe. It makes things look attractive thus hiding its true nature. In specific context in which Maya is used in Table 4, it denotes an entity that is illusory. The fact that Maya transforms into Kaya, or body, that has mass, density and shape is suggestive that Maya may be the Dark Matter that hides the actual reality of the universe and may hide ¾ of the universe mass.
In the Theory of Rainbow Gravity, as stated earlier, gravity interacts differently with different colors of light in the cosmos. As a result of these interactions gravity may change the very constitution of light particle. The consequence of this is that the speed of light may be different for different colors of the rainbow. The differences in may be very minute and subtle. This has not yet been proven by experimentation. In connection with Naklanki Geeta, a question then arises if Gravity had any influence on the enigmatic transformation of light as shown on Table 4. The nature of these transformations are unclear and we have made a number of speculative stabs to explain this. Naklanki Geeta adds one more avenue of investigation in this respect. It could mean that these transformations of light which are very different than what Standard Physics tells are driven by gravity. Could it be that Naklanki Geeta is telling us that like the isotopes of atoms, light may have different forms due to these interactions with gravity? The Hadron Collider and Gamma-Ray Burst Research currently underway will tell us if this is the case.
An additional point is Rainbow Gravity Model implies that Big Bang may have never happened, that universe may have existed without beginning and will continue to exist without end. I have made this point earlier and I repeat it here. In cosmological terms many ginans do not specifically mention a Big Bang singularity. They simply say that universe was created from chaotic condition, which they call “nilvaran dhandhu kar.”
4.7 Nur – A Brief Discussion
I would like to add a concluding paragraph regarding the term Nur which occurs at Transformations 7th and 8th in Table 4. Its Quranic import we have already explored in Sura Al-Nur which describes it as Allah’s Light. In Naklanki Geeta it is shown as a derivative from other form of light. This creates a dilemma of interpretation. If Nur as used in Naklanki Geeta is a derivative concept than it is subject to laws of decay and transformation. This I believe not to be the case. Here a possible quantum explanation is applicable.
Under this scenario the transformation of Light takes two paths:
The “bluish/opaque” (NIL) Light that originates at the very beginning exists in totality of all it states. According to Quantum Copenhagen Interpretation it has indeterminate state. It is as if this ‘Light’ is in a Schrodinger’s steel box. The transformation processes that are going on are internal to this closed box. As I stated earlier, these transformation processes are invisible and there are no witnesses save the Supreme Creator. In this fashion, the dizzy pace of non-visible transformations continues until transformation #20 when something special occurs. The Light in the Schrodinger’s steel box becomes a physical concept of light (prakash, ajvalo) by which we see and comprehend our universe. This is due to the fact that at that point seeds of life have taken root in our four dimensional universe. Now the future of the universe will have life and there will be witnesses. Supreme Creator by Quantum Copenhagen Interpretation causes the steel box to open and cause a Waveform Collapse and the Supreme Creator says “let here be Light” and lo! The universe has light.
Figure 6: Let there be Light (illustration Free Clipart).
But an alternate esoteric phenomenon is also in progress. This second path is much more interesting. It is as if the Schrodinger’s steel box like a Russian baby doll has an additional box inside it, which remains closed. And it is this second steel box that contains divine Light which encapsulates the secret of Nur. Its state is indeterminate and it exists in totality of all its states. As long as this second steel box remains closed, we would never know its internal state. Here I would like to refocus on the Sura Nur which states that divine Light is encased in several layers of parables, starting with a niche, in which is a lamp, which is in a glass that is glittering like a star and the lamp is lit by oil of blessed Olive tree, even when no fire has touched it.
In keeping with the parables of Sura Nur, the second box within the first box keeps safe the secret of Nur, Figure 7. The Supreme Creator in his compassions provides parables that describe its attributes. All we are told is that by quarks of quantum mechanics there are possibilities of penetrating through the thickness of the steel walls of this box and comprehend the nature and state of this Nur. In mysticism this is the stage of Enlightenment. But in so doing there is a figurative possibility of losing speech! Nur forever remains indeterminate and preserves its secrecy like the dream of a mute and deaf, as described in a Buj Niranjan, by Pir Sadardin:
Gunge sapna paya
Samaj samaj pachtai
Like the dream of a mute and deaf,
It cannot be shared with anyone.
Figure 7: Box within Box – keeping secret of “Nur” Safe.
On this note I conclude Part I of this article. In Part II (to be published next), I shall try to discuss Naklanki Geeta and the sciences of Multiple Universes (Multiverses) and the Theory of Every Thing(TOE). In another sequel, I will discuss the nature of Light, origin of “consciousness and understanding” and nature of divine ecstasy.
Date posted: November 20, 2015.
Last updated: November 22, 2015.
Copyright: Shiraz Pradhan/Simerg.
About the author: Shiraz Pradhan (B.Sc. MSME, C.Eng, Fellow I. Mech. E) is an international engineering consultant who has contributed to several engineering textbooks and engineering publications and has been awarded patents. In parallel, he has continued his ties with religious education (RE), teaching RE classes in UK, Canada, USA and Japan and delivering special lectures on the extracts of his Ilm contributions, especially The Inner Journey, Die before you Die and Man in the Universe.
Pradhan’s current interests cover a broader spectrum of Islamic and Ismaili thoughts and studies of other religions. He is concluding the script of a full-length play of the 10th Century trial of the Sufi Saint Mansur al-Hallaj in Baghdad based on historical facts. This trial was a cause célèbre in Islam which shook the foundations of the Abbasid Empire and resulted in the death by decapitation of this upright and pious Muslim. The other areas of his interest include the synthesis of the Khoja ginanic tradition with the broader Ismaili philosophy and theology, the preservation of its gayki (singing) tradition, the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Early Christianity and the Vedanta.
Other articles by Shiraz Pradhan on this website:
URLS of internet site continually change and hence only titles of searches are included.
 Naklanki Geeta by Sayd Imam Shah – Unmarked edition, probably published by Ismaila Association for India Prior to 1960.
 Shadows of the Mind, Roger Penrose, Vintage Press, 2005, UK.
 A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Bantam Press, 1988, Pages 53-57.
 The Universe in a Nutshell, Stephen Hawkings, and Wikipedia.
 Quantum Mechanics – Wikipedia.
 Images of Solvay Conference 1927 – Wikipedia.
 A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking, Bantam Press, 1988.
 Copenhagen Interpretation – howstuffworks, Internet.
 Schrodinger’s Cat – Wikipedia and Internet.
 Shadows of the Mind, Roger Penrose, Vintage Press, 2005, UK, Chapter on Quantum Mechanics and the Brain.
 Ibid, Chapter on World of Quantum Mechanics.
 Ghost of Schrodinger’s Cat caught on Camera, Internet.
 Anti-Particle, Internet.
 Daily Mail, UK, 14th April 2015.
 Daily Telegraph, UK, 15th April 2015 and Scientific America, 9th Dec 2013, In a Rainbow Universe Time May Not Have a Beginning.
 Inner Odyssey, By Shiraz Pradhan, Ilm 1976, and republished in Simerg (see link above).
 Images of Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum, Internet.
 Quantum Electrodynamics, Richard Feyman quote, Internet.
 Photon Decoupling Era, Internet.
 Photon Decay, Yahoo answers – Internet, additionally see below:
David S answered 8 years ago:
‘I have never before heard that photons lose energy simply by travelling through space. I doubt that this really happens.
There’s such a thing as a doppler red shift: but that’s different.
There’s such a thing as relativistic red shift: but that’s different, too.
I know of only one decay process for photons. Photons having energy greater than about 1 MeV can spontaneously break down into a particle and an anti-particle, such as an electron and a positron. Very high energy lasers have energy losses from their beams by this process, which is called “pair production.”
The reason I doubt that photons lose energy. Photons experience no time in their own frame of reference. Their emission and absorption are simultaneous, from the photon’s own point of view, no matter how much time elapses for an observer.’
 Photons – Wikipedia