Ghadir-Khumm and the Two Weighty Matters

By Jehangir A. Merchant


A huge caravan of around 100,000 Muslim pilgrims, spread over many miles of the desert, is returning to Medina after completing the Hajj in Mecca. As it reaches Ghadir-Khumm, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.s.) is commanded by Allah to deliver one of the last verses of the Holy Qur’an:

“O Messenger of Allah, make known what has been revealed to you from your Lord, for if you do not, you will not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect you from mankind.” (Holy Qur’an, 5 : 67)

Jehangir A. Merchant – Life of service to the Ismaili community. He edited the flagship Ismaili magazine, Ilm, in London.

The date is March 16, 632 C.E. A camp is then decreed at this valley, and the caravan gathers together in a vast open space. A platform is constructed from which the Prophet would speak.

The revelation of the verse renders this as one of the most unique messages in the Prophet’s entire mission. It is crucial, and failing to deliver the message will make his prophetic mission incomplete. The Prophet mounts the rudimentary platform with Hazrat Ali (a.s.) by his side. The murmuring in the crowd turns to a silence.

As the Prophet begins his speech, he pronounces the verse he has received from Allah. He then seeks a confirmation from the pilgrims as to whether he has indeed proclaimed all of God’s commands. They affirm this with a resounding voice. Looking up into the desert sky, the Prophet says, “O God! You be our witness to this day.”

“What could this be all about, with Ali on the stage beside the Prophet? A revelation of twenty three years nullified and judged incomplete without the announcement he is about to make!” I might have pondered, had I been there.

The Holy Prophet’s subsequent actions and words provide the context of Hazrat Ali’s presence on the stage. The Prophet takes Hazrat Ali by his hand and raising it pronounces in his high, clear and firm tone:

“He of whom I am the Mawla, Ali is also the Mawla. O Allah! Be the friend of him who is his friend and the enemy of him who is his enemy. O Allah! Help the one who helps Ali and forsake the one who forsakes Ali!”

This singularly important Message from Allah, and the words of the Prophet find further clarity as he adds the following pronouncement:

“I am leaving amongst you two weighty things after me, the Qur’an and my Progeny (ahl al-bayt). Verily, if you hold fast to them both you will never go astray. Both are tied with a long rope and cannot be separated till the Day of Judgement.” (Muslim, Vol. II, pg. 279)

With these pronouncements, the Prophet lays the foundation for a new Divine Order. The two weighty matters (thaqalain) – Allah’s final Book and the Holy Prophet’s progeny through Hazrat Ali – are new partners till the Day of Judgement.

Before descending from the pulpit, the Holy Prophet commands every one of the returning pilgrims to offer their baiyah (oath of allegiance) to Mawla Ali. Omar ibne Khuttab, who later became the second Caliph, was the first to congratulate and offer his baiyah to Mawla Ali saying:

‘‘Congratulations! Congratulations! O son of Abu Taleb, you have now become my Mawla (Master) and Mawla of every faithful man and every faithful woman.” (Ghazzali, Sirrul-Alameen)

Hearing the words of felicitations offered by Omar to Ali, our Holy Prophet asks him to address Ali not as ‘son of Abu Taleb’ but as Amirul-Mu’mineen (the Lord Commander of the faithfuls).

Thereafter, the pilgrims present offer their baiyah. The Prophet also commands them that on their return they ask those not present to acknowledge Ali as their Amirul-Mu’mineen.

This momentous event at Ghadir-Khumm, almost at the end of Prophet Muhammad’s successful mission as the Last and Final Prophet of Allah, culminates thousands of years of Divine Revelations through God’s appointed Messengers. And thus, the revelation:

“This day have I perfected your religion for you and have completed My favours upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (Holy Qur’an, 5:3)

Thus, Ali becomes the guardian (Wali) and the master (Mawla) of all believing men and women, and the Prophet’s successor. Allah’s favours upon mankind are completed, and Islam becomes the perfect religion in His sight.

A bilateral Guardianship (al-Walaya) between Hazrat Ali and the Muslim community is established. Al-Walaya is so crucial that many generations later, the 4th Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.) says:

“The last obligatory duty that Allah sent down was al-Walaya (adherence to the guardian designated by Allah). Then, He sent down the verse: ‘Today, I have completed your religion ….’” (Holy Qur’an, 5:3).

The oath of allegiance offered to Hazrat Ali at Ghadir-Khumm as well as the Qur’anic verse (48:10) concerning the bayah is too important to be ignored, and some five centuries later a thinking Nasir Khushraw, who is not yet an Ismaili, demands answers for questions that bother him:

“Why should later believers be deprived of this reward (of bayah)? What fault was it of theirs that they were not born in the time of the Prophet? Why should God allow that hand to disappear? There has to be someone at whose hand the oath to Allah can be pledged.”

Nasir Khusraw does not despair. His resolve and quest take him to Cairo where the hand of the Fatimid Imam al-Mustansir bi Allah (a.s.) awaits him.

The complete event at Ghadir-Khumm – the caravan halt arising for the revelation 5:67, the gathering at one location of widely dispersed pilgrims, the construction of a rudimentary platform, Allah’s Message revealed by our Holy Prophet Muhammad giving Hazrat Ali the parity with himself by ascribing him the attribute of Mawla as well as instructing Muslims to hold fast to both the Holy Qur’an and his progeny, the raising by the Holy Prophet of Hazrat Ali’s hand followed by the bayah to Hazrat Ali – make this a singular event for me and I Wish I’d Been There.

But, at the same time, my mind wonders about the events that followed soon after the spirit of our Holy Prophet took flight to the Blessed Companionship on High. About eighty days had passed since the event at Ghadir-Khumm, when our Holy Prophet had made Allah a witness to his call and had seen the bayah pledged to Hazrat Ali. Why now was there a doubt and unwillingness to accept Ali as their Mawla? And why did Omar, who was the first to offer bayah to Mawla Ali, declare his support for Abu-Bakr as the Caliph at Saqa-e-fae-bani Saa’ada?

Nonetheless, the Divine Plan of continual Guidance established at this epoch-making incident has continued to flourish uninterruptedly under Divine Protection for over 1400 years. This principle of direct hereditary descent of the Imam from the Prophet was championed centuries later by the Ismaili poet Nizar Quhistani, often with the support of the following Quranic verse:

“Allah did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above all people – offspring, one of the other, and Allah knows and hears all things.” (Holy Qur’an, 3:33-34)

Quhistani explained:

“We search for a union with the family of the Chosen (Prophet Muhammad). We search for the truth of son after son. We are totally obedient to his offspring, one of the other. There is no other thing we can add to this but itself. We endeavour in our faith so that we do not turn out to be faithless.”

Thus millions of murids over time have been beneficiaries of the Imams’ guardianship and today we feel this intimate loving care from our 49th Imam, Noor Mawlana Shah Karim al-Hussaini Hazar Imam.

I Wish I’d Been There for that epochal event of March 16, 632, when our beloved Prophet Muhammad laid the foundation for the Institution of Imamat which will stay with Mankind forever as affirmed by the Hadith Thaqalain and the Qur’anic verses mentioned above. To conclude, Allah declares in the Holy Qur’an:

“Their intention is to extinguish God’s Light (by blowing) with their mouths; But God has willed to spread His Light in all its fullness however hateful this may be to all who deny the Truth.” (Holy Qur’an, 61:8).



Note: The author, Jehangir A. Merchant, passed away in May 2018 at the age of 89. Please see Alwaez Jehangir Merchant (1928-2018) and also My last moments with my loving Papa, Alwaez Jehangir Merchant (1928 – 2018)

1958: Mawlana Hazar Imam listens intently as Alwaez Jehangir gives an overview of the Gujarati text books used to impart religious education in Lourenço Marques to students of varying ages from 5 to 18 years, while Ismaili leaders look on.

About the writer: Alwaez (Rai) Jehangir Merchant, born in Mumbai on 13th December 1928, started his career as a religious education teacher and honorary Alwaez for Ismaili Jamati Institutions in Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), Mozambique, in 1954, after qualifying in 1951-52 from Ismailia Association for India’s first Waezin program. He was joined in this service by his wife, Alwaeza Maleksultan. India’s annexation of the Portuguese colony of Goa resulted in a retaliatory measure by Salazar’s Government in Portugal against Indian Citizens residing in Mozambique. Alwaez and his family were forced to leave Mozambique, but not before he spent five long months in an internment camp with thousands of other Indian Nationals. The family then moved to Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, where Alwaez served with the Ismailia Association for Tanzania as a religious education teacher as well as religious inspector for Aga Khan schools throughout Tanzania. He also rendered Honorary services as an Alwaez during his tenure in Tanzania from 1962-1972.

He subsequently served with the Ismailia Association for the United Kingdom (now known as the Shia Imami Ismaili Tariqa and Religious Education Board, ITREB) from 1975 until his retirement in 1992. He has given Waezes all around the world and represented Ismailia Associations at various conferences. In 1974-75 he and his wife undertook an extensive year long Waez tour, organized by the Ismaili Supreme Council under Diwan Sir Eboo’s leadership, in newly established Jamats in Europe and North America.

In the literary area, Alwaez Jehangir was responsible for the publication of Read and Know magazine in Dar-es-Salaam, and edited and wrote extensively for ITREB UK’s flagship magazine, Ilm. He now resides in Vancouver, Canada, with Rai Saheba Maleksultan.


1. Please click I Wish I’d Been There for links to other published articles in this special series.

Please visit the Simerg Home page for links to articles posted most recently. For links to articles posted on this Web site since its launch in March 2009, please click What’s New. Please sign-up for blog subscription at top right of this page.

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3, Please view this excellent chart of the Ismaili Imamat. Ismaili Imamat Chart Map with Dates

17 thoughts on “Ghadir-Khumm and the Two Weighty Matters

  1. So beautifully explained the scenario which took place at Ghadir-Khumm on 16th March 632 . It felt like l was physically present at the event. The language used is so simple and easy for any generation to understand. Thank you for sharing the article.

  2. What a very beautifully and clearly explanation of the establishment of The Foundation of Imamat at Ghadir Khumm, and his personal that he wished he had been there.I remember Alwaez Rai Jehangir Merchant mention about this to us when he was teaching us the meaning of the beginning of the 3rd part of our Dua. Little did I understand at that time the depth of this very important and fundamental part of our Tariqah , as I was only in standard 8. I have very fond memories of both my teachers including Alwaeza Malek Merchant – in my formative years in Dar es Salaam. And I am always grateful to them for their teaching during that time which kept us grounded, and encouraged us to always to seek further knowledge in whatever we do .

  3. One of the crucial event in the history of all Shias. It is the basis of our belief it could not be more clearer than what Alwaez has shown us. All we need is to reflect on this to strengthen our faith as the holy Qur’an always directs us to do.

  4. Dear Malik
    Your dad has very truthfully explained the event of Ghadir Khum. His piece is great for our youth in the jamat & I shall share it with them.

    Thank you and may Mawla bless you for sharing knowledge with everyone who visits and reads Simerg.

  5. For us all youth and children of Lourenco Marques, Alwaez Jehangir Merchant will be known as out beloved Master Sahib and Mrs. Mercanht as our beloved Maleka Ben who will always live in our hearts and prayers till the last drop of blood of our bodies. We love you forever. I have known Master Sahib since 1954 (I was 7 years old then) and to this day I remember the photo taken in Council Room downstairs in our JamatKhana during Mowlana Hazar Imams visit to Lourenco Marques in 1958.

    You will always be our Master Sahib and Maleka Ben and thats from all the Jamat generally and particularly the youth from 50 and 60s
    Aziz Noorali
    (youngest son of Sherbanoo Noorali, born in Mozambique 1948)

  6. Very nice article. Often wondered the same thing myself, considering how such an important event in the history of all muslims has been interpreted differently. My search continues…

  7. A very well writing article! Alwaez (Rai) Jehangir Merchant mentioned good and useful subjects, which have enhanced my understanding of the topic. Thank you. With best regard!

  8. Indeed, Alwaez Merchant has faithfully and sincerely served the Jamaat. May Khudawand Bless him and his Family with Barakat, Love and Prosperity and spiritual as well physical Health, Ameen.

  9. I have known (Rai) Jehangir Alibhoy Mohomed Merchant since my childhood since he was born in Bombay (now known as MUMBAI).

    His elder brother (Itmadi) Mohomed Alibhoy Mohomed was the Mukhi of Kandi Moholla Jamakhana (now known as KARIMABAD) for many years. He was the President of FIDAI ACADEMY, Andheri, Mumbai for a number of years till I was appointed President in 1968.

    Alwaez Jehangir showed glimpses of his vast knowledge and flair from an early age and rose to his present stature. His article published here gives the glimpses of his tremendous research made by him

    Since he lives ln Vancouver, I am looking forward to renewing my contacts with him.

    With my kind regards.

    Akber Premji.


  10. Enlightening, refreshing & grounding info. Article is well written. As a young boy I used to read “Read and Know” and I have copies of some of them authored by different Alwaezins. I would like to meet you as I am also resident of Vancouver.

  11. A very well written article, Alwaez. This article has really brought alive a pivotal time in human history, an introduction to a new world order, really. A new concept for humanity, revealed and given by Allah. March 16, 632 ought to be indelibly stamped in history books as the beginning of a new era in human history. Many conceptual ideas have been covered in the article, with personal thoughts, quotes, important and pivotal persons — shabaash!

  12. I have most fond memories of both Alwaez and Alwaeza who indelibly guided my formative years in Dar-es-Salaam. It was proof of Allah’s generosity and mercy for those who understood; their conduct spoke louder than words to our impressionable, vulnerable minds, forever binding together Din and Duniya in the eternal life of service and remembrance.

  13. I have personal and fond memories of Al-Waez Jehangir Merchant’s teaching whenever I was fortunate to hear him in London. This is a very important contribution to Shia and the Shia Imami Ismaili history in particular.

  14. Excellect writing by Alwaez Mechant. Alwaez’s contribution to the Jamati education is much appreciated.

    Enjoyed the series!!

    Thank you!

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