June 11, 1963: President John Kennedy on Civil Rights, as 2 black students are admitted to University of Alabama after Governor Wallace initially blocks them

Compiled by MALIK MERCHANT
Publisher/Editor Simerg, Barakah and Simergphotos

In a tweet last week, Calgary’s Mayor Nahid Nenshi said, “Like many of you, I have been profoundly disturbed by, well, everything this past week. We’ve been reminded of the reality of racism, here and everywhere.” It was in reference to George Floyd, the black American who died after a police officer in Minneapolis knelt on his neck for 9 minutes. Calgarians turned out by their thousands to speak out against racism, as shown in the incredible photograph that was captured by Jon Yee.

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Calgary anti-racism rally. Photo: Jon Yee,
Calgary anti-racism rally. Photo: Jon Yee, who noted about the photo in his tweet, “I point at things and push a button. Sometimes I get lucky.”

On Friday, June 5, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau took a knee at an anti-racism protest on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.

With the hearts of hundreds of millions of people around the world still in grief over what happened to Mr. Floyd in Minneapolis on May 24, 2020, we start a series of posts on the subject of race, equality and cultural diversity with President John F. Kennedy’s address to the American people on civil rights. We are deeply indebted to the textual and audio-visual divisions of the Presidential Library and Museum of John F. Kennedy for providing us with links from which we have been able to draw some of the material that is posted below.

Events at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963

Federalized National Guard troops on the campus of the University of Alabama, June 11, 1963 when African Americans Vivian Malone and James Hood registered for classes. Simerg photo via LOC.
Federalized National Guard troops on the campus of the University of Alabama, June 11, 1963 when African Americans Vivian Malone and James Hood registered for classes. Photo: Warren K Leffler / US Library of Congress.

At 8:00 p.m., on June 11, 1963, Americans watching TV and listening to the radio heard President John F. Kennedy say things about civil rights that no American president had said before.

He began the speech citing events that had taken place at the University of Alabama that afternoon when George Wallace, the Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever” and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the Schoolhouse Door of the University’s Foster Auditorium to try to block the entry of two black students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, who had applied for admission to the University. The Governor specifically proclaimed at the door, “I stand here today as governor of this sovereign state and refuse to willingly submit to illegal usurpation of power by the central government.” At the time, Alabama was the only remaining state with no integrated public schools.

The two students were accompanied by Nicholas Katzenbach, the Deputy Assistant Attorney General, who would keep president Kennedy and attorney general informed by phone.

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Vivian Malone entering Foster Auditorium to register for classes at the University of Alabama. Photo: Warren K Leffler /US Library of Congress. reproduced in Simerg
Vivian Malone entering Foster Auditorium to register for classes at the University of Alabama. Photo: Warren K Leffler / US Library of Congress.

Katzenbach confronted the governor and handed him the president’s orders to step aside. When Wallace refused, the president was informed, and he signed Executive Order 11111 federalizing the Alabama National Guard. The commander of the Guard, General Henry V. Graham, politely asked the governor to move. Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood completed their registration, but Wallace believed he had won because America had witnessed his stand. That night, President Kennedy addressed the nation on television and radio.

He explained what happened in Alabama that day, and announced his commitment to a far-reaching civil rights bill. Please read the transcript below, followed by a link to the speech by President Kennedy. Teachers — and parents who have assumed the role of teachers during Covid-19 — will find the page curricular resources useful for further learning and education.

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Transcript and Video of President John F. Kennedy’s Address to the American People on June 11, 1963

23 August 1962: President Kennedy addresses the AMVETS convention in New York City by telephone. White House, Oval Office. Photo: Abbie Rowe, National Park Service, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

By PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY

Good evening, my fellow citizens:

This afternoon, following a series of threats and defiant statements, the presence of Alabama National Guardsmen was required on the University of Alabama to carry out the final and unequivocal order of the United States District Court of the Northern District of Alabama. That order called for the admission of two clearly qualified young Alabama residents who happened to have been born Negro.

That they were admitted peacefully on the campus is due in good measure to the conduct of the students of the University of Alabama, who met their responsibilities in a constructive way.

I hope that every American, regardless of where he lives, will stop and examine his conscience about this and other related incidents. This Nation was founded by men of many nations and backgrounds. It was founded on the principle that all men are created equal, and that the rights of every man are diminished when the rights of one man are threatened.

Today we are committed to a worldwide struggle to promote and protect the rights of all who wish to be free. And when Americans are sent to Viet-Nam or West Berlin, we do not ask for whites only. It ought to be possible, therefore, for American students of any color to attend any public institution they select without having to be backed up by troops.

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President Kennedy and Julius Nyerere
17 July, 1961: President John F. Kennedy is seen with Prime Minister Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika at the West Wing Colonnade, White House, Washington, D.C. Also in picture is Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs G. Mennen “Soapy” Williams. Photo credit: Robert Knudsen. White House Photographs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

It ought to be possible for American consumers of any color to receive equal service in places of public accommodation, such as hotels and restaurants and theaters and retail stores, without being forced to resort to demonstrations in the street, and it ought to be possible for American citizens of any color to register and to vote in a free election without interference or fear of reprisal.

It ought to be possible, in short, for every American to enjoy the privileges of being American without regard to his race or his color. In short, every American ought to have the right to be treated as he would wish to be treated, as one would wish his children to be treated. But this is not the case.

The Negro baby born in America today, regardless of the section of the Nation in which he is born, has about one-half as much chance of completing a high school as a white baby born in the same place on the same day, one-third as much chance of completing college, one-third as much chance of becoming a professional man, twice as much chance of becoming unemployed, about one¬seventh as much chance of earning $10,000 a year, a life expectancy which is 7 years shorter, and the prospects of earning only half as much.

This is not a sectional issue. Difficulties over segregation and discrimination exist in every city, in every State of the Union, producing in many cities a rising tide of discontent that threatens the public safety. Nor is this a partisan issue. In a time of domestic crisis men of good will and generosity should be able to unite regardless of party or politics. This is not even a legal or legislative issue alone. It is better to settle these matters in the courts than on the streets, and new laws are needed at every level, but law alone cannot make men see right.

We are confronted primarily with a moral issue. It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution.

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This photograph was given to President John F. Kennedy by Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada (1963-1968), during his state visit to the White House on May 11, 1963.
This photograph was given to President John F. Kennedy by Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada (1963-1968), during his state visit to the White House on May 11, 1963, exactly a month before the President addressed the Americans on Civil Rights.

The heart of the question is whether all Americans are to be afforded equal rights and equal opportunities, whether we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated. If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public, if he cannot send his children to the best public school available, if he cannot vote for the public officials who represent him, if, in short, he cannot enjoy the full and free life which all of us want, then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place? Who among us would then be content with the counsels of patience and delay?

One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs, their grandsons, are not fully free. They are not yet freed from the bonds of injustice. They are not yet freed from social and economic oppression. And this Nation, for all its hopes and all its boasts, will not be fully free until all its citizens are free.

We preach freedom around the world, and we mean it, and we cherish our freedom here at home, but are we to say to the world, and much more importantly, to each other that this is a land of the free except for the Negroes; that we have no second-class citizens except Negroes; that we have no class or caste system, no ghettoes, no master race except with respect to Negroes?

Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise. The events in Birmingham and elsewhere have so increased the cries for equality that no city or State or legislative body can prudently choose to ignore them.

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President Kennedy reaches out to crowd in Texas, photo reproduced in Simerg
22 November 1963 President Kennedy reaches out to the crowd gathered at the Hotel Texas Parking Lot Rally in Fort Worth, TX, 22 November 1963. Photo: Cecil Stoughton / John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

The fires of frustration and discord are burning in every city, North and South, where legal remedies are not at hand. Re-dress is sought in the streets, in demonstrations, parades, and protests which create tensions and threaten violence and threaten lives.

We face, therefore, a moral crisis as a country and as a people. It cannot be met by repressive police action. It cannot be left to increased demonstrations in the streets. It cannot be quieted by token moves or talk. It is a time to act in the Congress, in your State and local legislative body and, above all, in all of our daily lives.

It is not enough to pin the blame on others, to say this is a problem of one section of the country or another, or deplore the fact that we face. A great change is at hand, and our task, our obligation, is to make that revolution, that change, peaceful and constructive for all.

Those who do nothing are inviting shame as well as violence. Those who act boldly are recognizing right as well as reality.

Next week I shall ask the Congress of the United States to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century to the proposition that race has no place in American life or law. The Federal judiciary has upheld that proposition in a series of forthright cases. The executive branch has adopted that proposition in the conduct of its affairs, including the employment of Federal personnel, the use of Federal facilities, and the sale of federally financed housing.

But there are other necessary measures which only the Congress can provide, and they must be provided at this session. The old code of equity law under which we live commands for every wrong a remedy, but in too many communities, in too many parts of the country, wrongs are inflicted on Negro citizens and there are no remedies at law. Unless the Congress acts, their only remedy is in the street.

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July 12, 1961: President John F. Kennedy meets with representatives from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Photo: Robert Knudsen, White House / John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. photo reproduced in Simerg
July 12, 1961: President John F. Kennedy meets with representatives from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Photo: Robert Knudsen, White House / John F. Kennedy Presidential Library.

I am, therefore, asking the Congress to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public-hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments.

This seems to me to be an elementary right. Its denial is an arbitrary indignity that no American in 1963 should have to endure, but many do.

I have recently met with scores of business leaders urging them to take voluntary action to end this discrimination and I have been encouraged by their response, and in the last 2 weeks over 75 cities have seen progress made in desegregating these kinds of facilities. But many are unwilling to act alone, and for this reason, nationwide legislation is needed if we are to move this problem from the streets to the courts.

I am also asking Congress to authorize the Federal Government to participate more fully in lawsuits designed to end segregation in public education. We have succeeded in persuading many districts to desegregate voluntarily. Dozens have admitted Negroes without violence. Today a Negro is attending a State-supported institution in every one of our 50 States, but the pace is very slow.

Too many Negro children entering segregated grade schools at the time of the Supreme Court’s decision 9 years ago will enter segregated high schools this fall, having suffered a loss which can never be restored. The lack of an adequate education denies the Negro a chance to get a decent job.

The orderly implementation of the Supreme Court decision, therefore, cannot be left solely to those who may not have the economic resources to carry the legal action or who may be subject to harassment.

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President Kennedy photo reproduced in Simerg
President John F. Kennedy meets with representatives from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). President Kennedy; Ted Berry, member of NAACP Ohio Committee for Civil Rights Legislation (later Mayor of Cincinnati) (second from right); others unidentified. Lincoln Bedroom, White House, Washington, D.C. Photo: Robert Knudsen, White House / John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

Other features will be also requested, including greater protection for the right to vote. But legislation, I repeat, cannot solve this problem alone. It must be solved in the homes of every American in every community across our country.

In this respect, I want to pay tribute to those citizens North and South who have been working in their communities to make life better for all. They are acting not out of a sense of legal duty but out of a sense of human decency.

Like our soldiers and sailors in all parts of the world they are meeting freedom’s challenge on the firing line, and I salute them for their honor and their courage.

My fellow Americans, this is a problem which faces us all – in every city of the North as well as the South. Today there are Negroes unemployed, two or three times as many compared to whites, inadequate in education, moving into the large cities, unable to find work, young people particularly out of work without hope, denied equal rights, denied the opportunity to eat at a restaurant or lunch counter or go to a movie theater, denied the right to a decent education, denied almost today the right to attend a State university even though qualified. It seems to me that these are matters which concern us all, not merely Presidents or Congressmen or Governors, but every citizen of the United States.

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23 November, 1963 : President Kennedy’s wife and daughter kneel at the casket as the President’s body lies in state in the Rotunda of the Capitol Building. Photo: Abbie Rowe, National Park Service / John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Boston.

This is one country. It has become one country because all of us and all the people who came here had an equal chance to develop their talents.

We cannot say to 10 percent of the population that you can’t have that right; that your children can’t have the chance to develop whatever talents they have; that the only way that they are going to get their rights is to go into the streets and demonstrate. I think we owe them and we owe ourselves a better country than that.

Therefore, I am asking for your help in making it easier for us to move ahead and to provide the kind of equality of treatment which we would want ourselves; to give a chance for every child to be educated to the limit of his talents.

As I have said before, not every child has an equal talent or an equal ability or an equal motivation, but they should have the equal right to develop their talent and their ability and their motivation, to make something of themselves.

We have a right to expect that the Negro community will be responsible, will uphold the law, but they have a right to expect that the law will be fair, that the Constitution will be color blind, as Justice Harlan said at the turn of the century.

This is what we are talking about and this is a matter which concerns this country and what it stands for, and in meeting it I ask the support of all our citizens.

Thank you very much.

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Video of President John F. Kennedy’s Address to the American People on June 11, 1963

Please click on image for speech.

Date posted: June 11, 2020.

Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few.

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Please also see our sister website’s Photo Essay: Remembering President John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)

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