Maleksultan and Jehangir Merchant’s Contribution to the IIS: Cataloguing Khojki Manuscripts and Gujarati Translation of Farhad Daftary’s Short History of the Ismailis


January 21, 2023, marks the 2nd anniversary of the death of my beloved mother, “Mrs. Merchant“. She and my late dad, Jehangir, who passed away in May 2018, worked hand in hand for over 60 years in the service of the Ismaili community, its institutions and the Imam-of-the-Time, Mawlana Shah Karim al Hussaini Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan. In their service, they also contributed to the work of the Institute of Ismaili Studies (IIS.)

My mum could read the Khojki script, and she and my dad undertook the task of cataloguing the Khojki manuscripts at the IIS. As the manuscripts had been transferred onto microfiche, the IIS provided my parents with a microfiche reader which enabled them to catalogue the manuscripts.

mr and mrs merchant
Photograph: Tribute album prepared by the BUI students of London, England, on the retirement of Mr. and Mrs. Merchant. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.

On January 20, Simerg’s sister website produced a piece about the honour that was given to Dr. Farhad Daftary on January 18, 2023, for his devoted services to the Institute of Ismaili Studies, which he joined in 1988.

Prince Rahim Aga Khan was present at the event and expressed everyone’s gratitude to Dr. Daftary for his lifetime of work to the field of Ismaili studies. During his long tenure at the IIS, Dr. Daftary authored or edited 23 books and oversaw the publication of 150 books as well as contributed countless articles in scholarly journals and encyclopedias.

Most recently, in 2020, Dr. Daftary published a much anticipated volume entitled The Ismaili Imams: A Biographical History. The much sought book, unfortunately, has been a hard find at literature counters in Calgary and in other parts of Canada. I think very little effort has been made to restock the title, as I get a blank stare from literature counter members when I ask about the availability of the book and when they are expected to receive more stock! Perhaps, this important book is out of print and if that be the case then the IIS should certainly reprint it. This is one work that the Jamat had waited for more than 40 years since the IIS was established on December 13, 1977.

However, of all the books that Daftary published over the past 30 years, there is one that will always remain his seminal contribution to Ismaili studies. Entitled The Ismalis: Their History and Doctrines, the first edition was published in the early 1990’s and the 2nd edition came out in 2007. The voluminous 800 page book was more suited to scholars, researchers and keen readers of history. A few years later, in 1998, Dr. Daftary published a shorter version of the volume under the title A Short History of the Ismailis. Translations were done in numerous European languages.

Front and back cover flap of the Gujarati translation of Dr. Farhad Daftary’s work A Short History of the Ismailis. The translation was done under the title Ismailiono Toonk Itihas by Ismaili missionaries Jehangir Merchant and Sultanali Mohamed.

My dad was approached and whole heartedly accepted the challenge to do the Gujarati translation of the work. His Gujarati was very good but he was a very humble man. He sought the help of his missionary colleague Sultanali Mohamed to assist him and improve the translation even further.

Until the commencement of this project, my dad had looked after himself well physically. Such was his stamina that my daughter, Nurin, who went to visit him before he began the translation told me that during her morning walks with her grandad, he would outpace her leaving her metres behind. All this physical activity that he had conducted for years, came to a standstill once he undertook the Gujarati translation. He devoted day and night to the translation. He wanted the translation to be as perfect as possible and ensure that it adhered to Dr. Daftary’s style of writing. It wasn’t easy but he did it sincerely and from the bottom of his heart.

Missionary Sultanali Mohamed (1927-2020), co-translator with Jehangir Merchant of Farhad Daftary’s Short History of the Ismailis.

Sultanali missionary and my mum were very closely involved in the translation. The book went to India for printing and my dad insisted that he should see the proofs before the book was published.

What a shock when the proofs came back! The translation had been altered in many parts of the book and mistakes had been introduced. He decided to withdraw his name as the translator if the book was to be published in its sub-standard revised form without his approval He was deeply hurt, and responded to Dr. Daftary citing examples of the alterations that had been made in many parts of the book that were not acceptable to him. Moreover, numerous errors had been introduced. He found it hard to understand why the changes were made. He and Sultanali would have accepted the proof if it was better than the translation they had submitted for publication.

Dr. Daftary respectfully requested my dad to do the needful to bring the translation to its original form. My dad spent the next several weeks and reworked on the proofs that he had been provided. Throughout his dedicated time, he would have in front of him Gujarati-English dictionaries to ensure the best possible translation. He and my mum were thorough in all the services they rendered to Jamati institutions which they had begun in the early 1950’s after qualifying as missionaries and religious education teachers. Their first professional job was as teachers in Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), Mozambique.

Finally, after weeks of additional hard work, my dad and Sultanali’s translation was published and I have published, above, an image of the cover of the book. It doesn’t carry their names on the cover flap. However, they are listed in the inside title page of the book, shown below.

A cropped image of the inside title page of the Gujarati translation of Dr. Farhad Daftary's book A Short History of the Ismailis. The names of translators, Jehangir Alibhai Merchant and Sultanali Mohamed, appear on the last two lines of the page. Simerg
A cropped image of the inside title page of the Gujarati translation of Dr. Farhad Daftary’s book A Short History of the Ismailis. The names of translators, Jehangir Alibhai Merchant and Sultanali Mohamed, appear on the last two lines of the page.

I vividly recollect his dedication to Dr. Daftary’s book. Even I was ignored during my visits to Vancouver. Such was his love and dedication during his service to institutions. We were their “secondary children”, their students always receiving the highest priority but we accepted that throughout our lives. They sought and did everything for our education and to raise us to be good murids of Mawlana Hazar Imam.

On this day, we as a family pray for the rest of their souls in eternal peace. Their contribution to the Jamat was sincere. They worked hard for Jamati institutions and did the very best to set the best possible standards for themselves and their students. My mum is still fondly remembered by her students for the number of times she would call them when they had recitation duties in Jamatkhana — whether it was delivering prayers, ginans, waeze’s (sermons) or any other literary or religious recital. She wanted to ensure they were well prepared and fully ready for their recitations.

My parents had aspirations for their children and grandchildren as well as the youth of the Jamat, and I sincerely hope that we are able to fulfill their hopes and expectations of being good Ismaili Muslims, following its ethics and maintaining our devotion and love for Mawlana Hazar Imam.

Date posted: January 20, 2023.
Last updated: January 21, 2023 (see correction note below.)

Correction: An earlier version of the post stated that Mrs. Merchant was involved in the transliteration of titles of Khojki manuscripts at the IIS. She was actually involved in cataloguing the manuscripts with her husband, Jehangir. The oversight is regretted and the post has been revised.



Before departing this website, please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought-provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and SimergphotosThe editor may be reached via email at

Memories of Pelé (1940 – 2022): The Most Beloved Football Player of All Time

“I think the secret to success is to respect people, to be prepared, always, and then never never think that you are the best” — Pelé (watch VOA video clip, below)


When the FIFA World Cup began in Qatar on November 20, 2022, our thoughts were with Pelé as he was reported to be in the last stages of his life. Of course, for that reason alone, many neutrals would have wished for Brazil to win the world cup in honour of everyone’s favourite, Pelé. Brazil were eventually defeated in the quarter finals in a penalty shootout against Croatia; Pelé continued to live but finally succumbed to his illness on Thursday, December 29, 2022, at the age of 82.

The entire sporting world is in mourning and tributes are pouring in from footballers and football fans from around the world — and even from world leaders! Both President Biden and former President Obama have issued their own sentiments and feelings about the death of the king of soccer, Pelé, who defined football as the beautiful game. With players like him and his contemporary the great Eusébio  (d. 2014) of Portugal, Argentina’s Diego Maradonna (d. 2020), France’s Zinedine Zidane, Germany’s Franz Beckenbauer, Holland’s Johan Cruyff (d. 2016) and others, as well as today’s rising star Mbappe of PSG and France along with the astonishing Messi and Ronaldo who would not agree with that definition?

Story continues below

Pelé pictured before facing Boca Juniors in the second leg of 1963 Copa Libertadores Finals at La Bombonera in Buenos Aires. He is the all-time leading goalscorer for Santos FC. Photograph: Via Wikipedia, Public Domain..

In the late 1950’s and during the 1960’s, young kids like me growing up in Africa became fans of Brazil for one reason alone: Pelé. Our hearts would break and we would be plunged into utter sadness for days after Brazil’s loss, and this was felt in 1966 when Brazil failed to win the third consecutive world cup after winning the 1958 and 1962 world cups, with Pelé being instrumental in those successes.

Pelé (Number 10) dribbles past 3 players in the 1958 World Cup against Sweden. Photograph: Public domain

We would all show up at the air conditioned (New) Chox cinema in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to watch the highlights of the world cup that had been condensed into a film of 90 minutes. The cinema showings were jam packed and it was like being in a real football match. Emotions ran high. It was painful to see Brazil lose and not proceed beyond the group stage in 1966 — Pelé was apparently hacked down with tackles and fouls throughout the group round matches and especially against Bulgaria. The knee injury he sustained made him ineffective in the last group game against Portugal. Four year later, in 1970, we were bubbling with joy as we watched Brazil win the world cup for the third time with Pelé at centre stage.

Pelé and Benfica’s Eusébio Visit Mozambique

In the late fifties, I was in Lourenço Marques (now Maputo) and Brazil brought a team to Mozambique, composed of Pelé along with other Brazilian star players — Didi, Vava, Garrincha and so on. But I was still very young to recall much about the match. However the name Pelé remained transfixed in my mind from that moment onwards. Another great footballer — he was actually born in Mozambique — was no other than Eusébio, who was nicknamed the Black Panther. He ended up playing in Portugal for Benfica, who became the Portuguese champions in 1961/2 and went on to defeat Real Madrid in the European Cup (now known as the UEFA Champions League) in 1962, a game that I listened live at Aziz Noorali’s place, my next door neighbour. Eusébio scored in a stunning 5-3 victory.

Benfica toured Mozambique and brought their star player Eusébio to play against the Mozambique national side at either the Desportivo or Sporting Stadium (they were adjacent to each other). An Ismaili name Sattar Issa, a central defender, played for the Mozambique team. Though thoroughly thrashed by Benfica 7-3 with Eusebio scoring 3 or 4 goals, Sattar’s performance impressed Benfica so much that it was rumoured he would be leaving Mozambique to play for Benfica. However, that did not materialize. One other outstanding Ismaili player before Sattar who played for the league team Ferroviário and also the Mozambique national side was the late Amir Ismail, whose final home was in Vancouver. My mum was a fan of his and she would warn him to go to bed early and not go about galavanting at night before game day. He deeply respected my parents, as did Sattar, who was also a hard hitting cricket batsman. There were other Ismaili football stars including Amir Merali — I think he and Sattar played for rival teams, Sporting and Desportivo. In one crucial game between the two teams that I attended — and, I think, it was the season’s final and deciding game to determine the league winner — Sattar left his defensive position in the last two minutes to go into the penalty area at the other end as it was a must win game. Alas, there was a counter attack and Sattar’s team lost the match! For us, who had known Sattar for years, it was a heart breaking moment.

Over the past several hours, I have been reading obituaries on Pelé and I am sharing with our readers the one that has appeared on Voice of America below. The two minute clip on Pelé is also worth watching and one thing that struck me the most was Pele’s words: “I think the secret to success is to respect people, to be prepared always and then never never think that you are the best.”

Pele and Eusebio Simerg

Pelé (left) and Eusébio. Photograph: Thesefootballtimes

Of course, with regard to who is the best footballer of all time, the argument will bever be settled. But on examining Pelé’s footballing career and his impact around the world, as well as his accomplishments as an ambassador of football and a great humanitarian, I have to say I love him more than any other footballer in our time. I have fond memories of Eusébio too as I was almost 9 when I watched him in Lourenço Marques for Benfica. They were both outstanding individuals and footballers and I am glad I came across a superb piece by Paul Mc Parlan entitled “Remembering three rare but momentous occasions when Pele and Eusebio squared off.” Please read Parlan’s article, especially if you know who Eusébio was and were his admirer.


Obituary: Brazilian Football Legend Pele Dies at 82

World Mourns Pele, Simerg

Fans of Brazilian football legend Pele hang a banner reading “Eternal King Pele” outside the Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital, where Pele died after a long battle with cancer, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Dec. 29, 2022. Photograph: AFP/Via VOA


Brazilian football legend Pele, who burst onto the world scene as a goal-scoring teenager and led his national team to an unprecedented three World Cup titles, died Thursday at the age of 82.

He was hospitalized in late November, and doctors said in December he was dealing with cancer that had advanced along with kidney and cardiac problems. In September 2021, he had surgery to remove a tumor from his colon.

The Albert Einstein hospital, where Pele was being treated, said in a statement that he died of multiple organ failure.

“Everything we are is thanks to you. We love you infinitely. Rest in peace,” daughter Kely Nascimento wrote on Instagram.

Widely considered one of the greatest football players of all time, Pele dazzled on the World Cup stage for Brazil and in club games and international tours with his team Santos before helping generate a surge of excitement around the sport in the United States with a late-career stint with the New York Cosmos.

Born Edson Arantes do Nascimento on Oct. 23, 1940, in Tres Coracoes, about 250 kilometers northwest of Rio de Janeiro, Pele signed with Santos at the age of 15.

By 16, he was part of Brazil’s national team, and in 1958 he made his World Cup debut at age 17. He is the youngest player to ever score in the men’s World Cup and the youngest to ever score three goals in one game, which he accomplished in Brazil’s second match of the tournament.

17-year-old Pelé cries on the shoulder of goalkeeper Gilmar after Brazil won the 1958 World Cup final. Photograph" Wikipedia/Public domain.
17-year-old Pelé cries on the shoulder of goalkeeper Gilmar after Brazil won the 1958 World Cup final. Photograph” Wikipedia/Public domain.

Two more goals in the tournament’s final match helped Pele lead Brazil to the championship. He won two more World Cups with Brazil, in 1962 and 1970.

His international career included 77 goals in 92 matches, and he was named FIFA’s co-player of the 20th century along with Argentina’s Diego Maradona.

After retiring from Santos and international duty, Pele joined the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League in 1975 and played three seasons there.

In his post-football life, Pele served as Brazil’s sports minister and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization appointed him UNESCO Champion for Sport for what it said was his “outstanding commitment to promote sport and help disadvantaged children.”


In 2020, Pele tweeted that he was proud of his relationship with the U.N., as well as his involvement in campaigns to promote breastfeeding in Brazil and to eradicate illiteracy.

“Today, I insist on being involved in good causes, both with NGO’s, Public institutions and my sponsors,” he posted. “This is part of my legacy and I applaud other football legends that have also been following this path, using the beautiful game to make the world better.”

Brazil has declared three days of mourning, and the arch at Wembley Stadium in London has been lighted in Brazil’s colors.

“I had the privilege that younger Brazilians didn’t have: I saw Pele play, live, at Pacaembu and Morumbi. Play, no. I saw Pele give a show,” said Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the president-elect of Brazil.

“Because when he got the ball, he always did something special, which often ended up in a goal,” he said.

Neymar, a fellow Brazilian and star for Paris Saint-Germain, said that before Pele, soccer was just a sport.

“He transformed football into an art, into entertainment. … Football and Brazil gained status thanks to the King. He has gone, but his magic will remain. Pele is ETERNAL!” Neymar wrote on Instagram.

French star Kylian Mbappe said Pele’s legacy will endure.

“The king of football has left us but his legacy will never be forgotten. RIP KING.” Mbappe said via Twitter.

“Rest in peace, Pele,” Argentina’s World Cup-winning captain Lionel Messi tweeted Thursday.

Some information for this report in VOA came from The Associated Press, Agence France-Presse and Reuters.

Date posted: December 30, 2022.

Credit for featured (collage) image at top of post: (Left) Pelé dribbling past a defender while playing for Brazil, May 1960 (public domain), and a portrait of Pelé by John Mathew Smith from Laurel Maryland, US. CC BY-SA 2.0



Before departing this website, please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought-provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and SimergphotosThe editor may be reached via email at

A view of the Aga Khan University, Karachi. Photograph: AKDN, designned by Thomas Payette

Thomas M. Payette, Renowned Architect, Dies Aged 90: His Design of the Aga Khan University was the Cornerstone of the Award-Winning Firm He Founded


We have learnt with immense sadness, through an obituary posted in Vineyard Gazette, that Thomas M. Payette, FAIA, renowned Cambridge architect and founder of Payette Associates, died on November 12, 2022, at the age of 90.

Raised in East Grand Rapids in Michigan, Tom studied at Michigan State University, where he received a degree in structural engineering. He married Ginny, his sweetheart from his grade school years, in 1954 and they moved to Cambridge, where Tom attended the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He received his Master’s in Architecture in 1960.

Thomas Payette
Thomas Payette (d. November 22, 2022), designed Aga Khan University

The obituary in Vineyard Gazette notes that, after graduating, Tom began working at Markus and Nocka. By 1965, he became president of the firm. It would later become Payette, an international design firm of more than 150 people. His selfless leadership and passion guided Payette into what it is today: an award-winning firm known for its leading design in hospitals, laboratories and universities. Included in its notable work is the Aga Khan Medical Center in Pakistan.

Over the three decades since its initial conception and planning, the Aga Khan University has withstood the test of time, growing and adapting to accommodate new emergent technology, political turmoil and cultural changes….A major force in the heart of the developing world of South Asia, the University represents both a link to the great Islamic academic traditions of the past and a bold, progressive action aimed at providing education and healthcare services to people in Pakistan and the surrounding region


In a short but illuminating piece published on the firm’s website under the title #PayetteForward: Our Roots with Aga Khan, Jennifer Hegarty notes the firm’s association with the Aga Khan University as follows:

“Our 30-year relationship with Aga Khan University has been a cornerstone of the firm we are today, a firm recognized by the AIA with the 2019 Architecture Firm Award. We are proud of the legacy of work we have produced and continue to develop with the Aga Khan University — which was the first of many fruitful international relationships in our portfolio.”

In her post, Jennifer also refers to the original master plan for the Aga Khan University and Thomas Payette’s continuous involvement with the institution in the ensuing years “to furthering the original vision through over 30 years and several master plan updates, keeping their pledge to the founders not only to keep the University true to cultural values, but to recognize the needs of the region in educating young people in the science of medicine and the care of patients.”

We invite our readers to learn more about Thomas Payette’s unique and extraordinary role in the design of the Aga Khan University by reading the following three illustrated pieces on the firm’s website:

Our readers join us in conveying our sincere condolences to all the members of the Payette family. In particular, our Ismaili readers will always remain grateful to Thomas M. Payette for playing such an important role in the planning, design and development of one of the most significant and cherished projects in the life of their beloved 49th Hereditary Imam, Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan.

Date posted: November 23, 2022.

Featured photo at top of post: A view of the Aga Khan University, Karachi. Photograph: AKDN.


Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought-provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos.

The editor may be reached via email at

Canadians Mourn the Passing of an Extraordinary Sovereign, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (1926 – 2022): Statements by the Governor General of Canada and the Prime Minister of Canada

Publisher/Editor SimergBarakah and Simergphotos

Simerg has learnt with deep sadness that Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II ( April 21, 1926 – September 8, 2022) has passed away at the age of 96. Like hundreds of millions of people around the world who adored the Queen and what she represented, we deeply mourn her death and pray that she may Rest in Eternal Peace. We have compiled the following piece from numerous sources including Wikipedia ,the Voice of America and a statement on her passing made by the Governor General of Canada. In the coming days, we hope to publish a special piece dedicated to the British Monarchy and its strong historic bond with the Ismaili Imamat and the Ismaili Muslim community.

Queen Elizabeth was Britain’s longest reigning monarch, and during her reign worked with 15 British prime ministers, beginning with Winston Churchill. She served as head of state for both Labour and Conservative governments in the UK, following the modern royal tradition of remaining neutral on political matters. When the Her Majesty became the Queen in 1952, she was the monarch and head of state of seven independent states: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. Over the ensuing years, many countries under British rule became independent and the realm of the monarchy changed. Later, many of the newly independent became republics. Canada along with 14 other nations continued to regard the British monarch as its Head of Statement. With the passing of the Queen, the new sovereign is King Charles.

Queen Elizabeth helped lead her country through the aftermath of World War II, the Cold War, economic booms and busts, strife in Northern Ireland, the creation of the European Union and Brexit. Admired for her dedication to her job, Queen Elizabeth was seen by many Britons as a pillar of strength for the country at a time when the nation was navigating its diminishing world power.

Earning the distinction of Britain’s longest reigning monarch on September 9, 2015, tHer Majesty the Queen characteristically went about her daily duties, which included opening a new railway in Scotland, barely mentioning the distinction. “Inevitably, a long life can pass by many milestones; my own is no exception,” she said at the ceremony.

As a young royal, Princess Elizabeth was placed directly in line for the throne when her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in 1936 in order to marry an American divorcee. Her father, George VI, inherited the role of head of state, and led the monarchy from 1936 to his death in 1952. Princess Elizabeth was on a tour in Kenya when she learned of her father’s death. She was just 25 years old at the time and only four years into her marriage to navy Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, a Greek prince, whom she wed at age 21. Married to Prince Philip, for 73 years, the prince was often by the queen’s side, or the two paces behind at official events that is required by royal protocol. The Queen hailed Prince Philip after his death as her “strength and stay” throughout their marriage and her reign. The couple had four children, Charles, born in 1948 (who now becomes the King), Anne, born in 1950, Andrew in 1960 and Edward in 1964.

Article continues below


Queen Elizabeth II dies at age 96, Simerg, News
Please click on photograph for Voice of America’s special photo gallery on the life of Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II (d. September 8, 2022).
A rare photograph of Queen Elizabeth II with Maryland governor Theodore McKeldin (right) and University of Maryland president Wilson Homer "Bull" Elkins (left), at a Maryland Terrapins vs. the North Carolina Tar Heels football game in College Park, Maryland. Photograph: Leffler, Warren K. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington.
A rare photograph of Queen Elizabeth II with Maryland governor Theodore McKeldin (right) and University of Maryland president Wilson Homer “Bull” Elkins (left), at a Maryland Terrapins vs. the North Carolina Tar Heels football game in College Park, Maryland. Photograph: Leffler, Warren K. Created/Published on October 19, 1957. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington.

Supporters of the queen say she was instrumental in helping the monarchy to survive in Britain when the institution had been abandoned in many countries around the world. Known for her pragmatism and unshowy dedication to the job, the queen came to personify Britain in the eyes of many. Through her steadfast presence at countless events representing her country, she earned the respect of large majorities in Britain as well as popularity abroad, becoming one of the world’s most recognizable figures. Britain’s Express newspaper reported in 2020 that the Queen had traveled more than a million miles, calling her “the most traveled head of state of all time.” The report said she had visited 110 countries, with her longest trip a 44,000-mile tour of the Commonwealth in 1953.

In 2002, the Queen traveled more than 40,000 miles to celebrate her Golden Jubilee — 50 years on throne — including visits to the Caribbean, Australia, New Zealand and Canada as well as 70 towns and cities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Some of her travels were diplomatic milestones for Britain, including her visit to West Germany in 1965, the first official visit by a British royal to Germany since 1913. The trip marked the 20th anniversary of the end of WWII. In 1986, the queen became the first visit British monarch to visit the Chinese mainland, and 25 years later she became the first British monarch in 100 years to travel to the Republic of Ireland.

She earned praise for her speech in Ireland in 2011, saying that her visit “reminds us of the complexity of our history, its many layers and traditions, but also the importance of forbearance and conciliation. Of being able to bow to the past, but not be bound by it.”

The queen was a patron of more than 500 charities in Britain. Research from the Charities Aid Foundation released in 2012, when the monarch celebrated 60 years on the throne, showed that Queen Elizabeth had helped organizations raise nearly $2 billion.

Canadians may note that the Queen’s reign of 70 years encompassed the mandates of 12 Canadian prime ministers and 13 governors general. She undertook 22 official visits to Canada, where she professed her love for our county again and again. She was a steadfast presence during some of the most tumultuous times of our lives, and most recently gave comfort to so many during the pandemic.

We reproduce below statements issued by the Governor General of Canada and the Prime Minister of Canada


Statement by the Governor General of Canada

September 8, 2022

Today, my husband, Whit, and I join all Canadians in mourning the passing of our extraordinary sovereign, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Her Majesty The Queen was, in equal measures, compassionate, dedicated, humble, engaged and wise. She believed in service to her people above all, and inspired so many with her dedication to the Crown.

For many of us, we have only ever known one Queen.

When I was growing up, my grandmother revered The Queen, as did so many in the Arctic. She would tell us stories about Her Majesty, about her role and her commitment.

Her Majesty’s warm welcome when we spent time with her earlier this year was a profound moment in our lives and a memory we will cherish forever.

Her reign encompassed the mandates of 12 Canadian prime ministers and 13 governors general. On 22 occasions, she undertook official visits to Canada, where she professed her love for our county again and again. She was a steadfast presence during some of the most tumultuous times of our lives, and most recently gave comfort to so many during the pandemic.

On behalf of all Canadians, I offer deepest condolences to the members of the Royal Family, who grieve the loss of a loving mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.

Mary Simon


Live Statement from the Governor General

September 8, 2022

Hello, bonjour, [Inuktitut greeting].

Today, we mourn the loss of our Queen of Canada, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

In countless languages around the world, people are sharing solemn words of remembrance. Today, in Inuktitut, I add to these tributes.

[In Inuktitut] On behalf of all Canadians, I extend my condolences to Her Majesty’s family. We honour her memory. 

On behalf of all Canadians, my husband, Whit, and I offer our condolences to the Royal Family on the loss, not just of a queen, but of a mother, grandmother and great-grandmother.  

Her Majesty cared about people, about our well-being. This was clear every time we spoke. She cared about Canada, and all the unique stories that make up our beautiful country.

She learned our stories as she visited every corner of Canada during her many Royal Tours. She called Canada her “second home.”

Her Majesty celebrated our achievements, reassured us in difficult times and inspired us with her steadfast dedication to service.

Until her final days, she remained engaged and committed to her country, to the Commonwealth and to her family. With her passing, we mourn the end of an era.

I’m proud to have represented Her Majesty as governor general. Following my appointment, Her Majesty said to me: “be gentle with yourself.” I’ve come to understand her words to mean that while we should work hard on the issues that matter, we should also take time to pause. To be patient. To lead with understanding and respect.

I can see the wisdom in these words.

To the entire Royal Family and to a Commonwealth in mourning, our thoughts are with you.

The memories of The Queen will always have a place here, in Canada. Her second home.

Thank you. Merci. MiigwetchNakurmiik.


Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada

September 8, 2022
Ottawa, Ontario

The Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, today issued the following statement on the passing of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II:

“It is with the heaviest of hearts that we learned of the passing of Canada’s longest-reigning Sovereign, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

“For most Canadians, we have known no other Sovereign. Queen Elizabeth II was a constant presence in our lives. Time and again, Her Majesty marked Canada’s modern history. Over the course of 70 years and twenty-three Royal Tours, Queen Elizabeth II saw this country from coast to coast to coast and was there for our major, historical milestones.

“She would proclaim ‘it was good to be home’ when returning to her beloved Canada. She was indeed at home here, and Canadians never ceased to return her affection.

“Her Majesty vowed to devote her life to the service of the Commonwealth and its people. On behalf of all Canadians, I thank Queen Elizabeth II for honouring this vow and for a lifetime of service.

“Her Majesty’s reign spanned so many decades – a period when we came into our own as a confident, diverse, and forward-looking country. It is her wisdom, compassion, and warmth that we will always remember and cherish.

“Today, a page has not only been turned, but a chapter in our shared history has drawn to a close. I know Her Majesty’s service to Canada and Canadians will forever remain an important part of our country’s history. The coming days will be a period of mourning for Canadians, as it will be for all Commonwealth citizens, ending with a national day of mourning when a commemorative service will be held to mark the passing of our Sovereign.

“On behalf of the Government of Canada, I express our heartfelt condolences to members of the Royal Family during this most difficult time.”

Date posted: September 8, 2022 (16:42 EDT.)
Last updated: September 8, 2022 (19:00, EDT, added Governor General’s live statement.)


We invite our readers to submit their thoughts and tributes to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II who has passed away at the age of 96. Please click on Leave a comment. Your feedback may be edited for length and brevity, and is subject to moderation. We are unable to acknowledge unpublished letters. Simerg’s editor Malik Merchant may be reached via email at

Farida Hassam Passings Simerg

Farida Shahsultan Hassam: A Multi-Talented, Courageous and Devoted Murid of Mawlana Hazar Imam, Passes Away in Toronto After Prolonged Illness

Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un
“Surely we belong to God and to Him we return” — Holy Qur’an, 2:156

“Life is a great and noble calling, not a mean and grovelling thing to be shuffled through as best as we can but a lofty and exalted destiny.” — Mawlana Sultan Mahomed Shah, His Highness the Aga Khan III (1877-1957), 48th Imam of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims.


For many many months, my sister Farida had been gravely ill. On days when she felt better there was hope of recovery, but then after a few days it seemed she would be gone any second. I was thousands of kilometres away from her living on the west coast in Vancouver; she was in Toronto. She was being well looked after in her nursing home, but the feeling of not being with her everyday made me very uneasy.

Story continues below

Farida Hassam with sister Rashida Tejani, Simerg passings
Farida Hassam, left, pictured with her younger sister Rashida during her visit to Richmond, BC, in 2021. Rashida was present in Toronto when Farida passed away on April 29, 2022 at the age of 78. Photo: Rashida Tejani Collection.

Should I arrange for her to be moved to Vancouver? But, then, would she be able to handle a new home in the condition she was in? All these questions bothered my mind everyday while she courageously struggled to live on and cope with her health problems, which were many, due to a weak heart. Every living thing has an instinct to survive. Human beings are blessed with minds to distinguish between right and wrong, they have a heart and they have a soul. For Farida, the remembrance of Mawlana Hazar Imam’s Farman, “whether you are young or old, every day is a day that must be lived, and during that day you must fulfill your responsibilities to the best of your ability” (1976, Mumbai, India) became Farida’s motto to live to the best of her ability. Honestly, when the co-author of this piece and our family friend, Malik, visited Farida in Toronto before his departure for Calgary, he was amazed to see her in high spirits as well as be a witness to her brilliant mind and remarkable memory. When it seemed that she wasn’t listening, because her eyes were closed, she was in fact FULLY alert! She would often correct me, narrate an incident or add detail to a story that I was telling about her, and respond with an astonishing feedback. Yes, that was my beloved sister Farida, who made us cheerful when we felt sad. She was bright as well as intellectually stimulating.

I consider myself truly lucky that during the past several months I was able to visit her multiple times and spend quality time with her during each of my visit. The last visit was in April when she died a few days after the Ismaili Centre Headquarters Mukhisaheb and Kamadiasaheb along with their female counterparts — their spouses — Mukhianisaheba and Kamadianisaheba came to visit Farida at the North York General Hospital to give her their blessings. It was a moment that truly uplifted me, but at the same time some kind of an indicator to me that Farida was probably in her final days. Their timing to visit Farida and bless her was perfect.

Story continues below

Farida Hassam with Malik Merchant of Simerg and nephew Karim Dhanani. Passings
Top: Nephew Karim Dhanani visited Farida regularly at her nursing home in North York; Malik Merchant visits Farida before his departure for Alberta; Farida enjoying her favourite meal — Swiss Chalet chicken and fries with the restaurant’s special gravy. Photos: Rashida Tejani Collection.

Farida had been admitted to the hospital at the beginning of April because of water retention. Her organs had started to fail and the heart had been weak for several years. At the hospital, she underwent a procedure to drain out fluid from her body. While this gave me signs of hope, the recovery was not to be. Finally, she was transferred to the North York Senior Health Centre Palliative Care, and she finally succumbed on April 29, shortly after the Ismaili leadership’s blessed visit.

Her funeral ceremony took place at Scarborough Jamatkhana on May 3, 2022. The samar and zyarat (ceremonies and prayers for the departed soul) were held later on the same day at the Headquarters Jamatkhana at the Ismaili Centre Toronto.

My dearest sister Farida was born on November 20, 1943 in Mityana, a small town located about 70 kilometres west of Uganda’s capital, Kampala. She did her primary education at the Aga Khan School in Mityana and then moved to Kampala for her secondary education at the Old Kampala Government School. She then joined our sister, Laila, in London to qualify as a hairdresser. She migrated to Canada in the 1970’s, and made Toronto her home.

As a qualified hairdresser, she worked in the field for several years, but was unable to continue with hairdressing on a permanent basis because she underwent three open heart surgeries to replace her heart valves. With her worsening health, she then decided to work as a secretary and also took training to pursue a career in computing. Unfortunately her weakened heart, that was also supported by a pacemaker, made it impossible for her to lead a normal professional life as much as she wanted to. However, Farida continued to remain active in her life through her interest and passion for crocheting and knitting. She made and donated baby outfits and shawls to local hospitals and Ismaili Jamatkhanas so that they would be distributed to young parents. She loved to make “prayer beads” (tasbihs) and supplied them to Ismaili children and youth attending Baitul-Ilm classes as well as to Ismaili community members across Canada. She also arranged to send some tasbihs to Ismailis in Tajikistan.

Farida was a multi-talented individual, full of life and vigour. She loved art and painting. She was also a true lover of nature, and got immense happiness and pleasure out of gardening and growing plants in her apartment. When she was finally moved to the Seniors’ Health Centre in October 2019, her social worker set up a garden on the rooftop of the building for Farida to continue with her hobby. She received excellent care at the Seniors’ Health Centre, a hub of innovative care facilities for the elderly provided by the North York General Hospital.

However, there was one person who had come into her life as an angel when she was still living in her apartment. She is Tarina Barter. Tarina continued visiting her at the Seniors’ Health Centre on a regular basis. She became a constant companion to Farida, spending many hours with her and often took Farida out for coffee and meals whenever Covid-19 protocols permitted. My sister’s favourite dish was the famous Swiss Chalet chicken that came with fries and a delicious bowl of gravy! Tarina’s constant updates on Farida provided me with much needed comfort. It was a blessing for the family that Tarina had appeared in our lives at such a critical and crucial moment, relieving us of constantly worrying about Farida’s health and condition. We cannot thank Tarina enough for her unconditional love, care and affection for Farida for 4 continuous years. Her final visit to Farida was on April 27, two days before Farida passed away (see photo, below).

Story continues below

Tarina Barter and Farida Hassam, North York Health Centre, Simerg passings
Tarina Barter is seen visiting Farida on April 27, 2022 at the North York Senior Health Palliative Care Centre just two days before she passed away. Tarina came as an angel to Farida and her family. She visited Farida on a regular basis over the last four years at her apartment as well as at the Seniors’ Centre. Photo: Rashida Tejani Collection.

Farida was a very kind and compassionate person. Her spirituality, faith and devotion to Mawlana Hazar Imam was exemplary, and set an example to all in her family to remain hopeful and courageous, whatever one’s circumstances.

In Farida’s passing, we have lost a great family member and we pray for her soul to Rest in Eternal Peace. Ameen.

As I complete this short tribute to my beloved sister Farida, I want to mention that our dad, Esmail Dhanani, and mom, Shirin Dhanani, and older brothers Noorali and Ramzan as well as older sisters Dolat Wadhwani, Roshan Lakhani and Zareen Dhamani have all passed away. May their souls also Rest In Eternal Peace. Ameen. 

Farida is survived by her daughter Fauzia Moorani and siblings Laila Pirani and of course myself, Rashida Tejani. I also take this opportunity to mention that my older brother Noorali Dhanani (popularly known as Noora of Sapra Studio) was one of the photographers selected to take pictures of Mawlana Shah Karim Hazar Imam when he recited the Eid ul-Fitr Namaz in Nairobi at the age of 7. Noora also travelled as a photographer with Mawlana Sultan Mahomed Shah on one of his trips by ship from Dar es Salaam to Zanzibar. I myself was fortunate to have a photo taken with Mata Salamat, Om Habibeh Aga Khan, in Karachi during Mawlana Hazar Imam’s Silver Jubilee visit in March 1983.

For the countless blessings that my family has received of serving the Imam-of-the-Time throughout our lives, we submit our humble shukhrana to Mawlana Hazar Imam.

While I was able to see my beloved sister before she passed away and was present for her funeral in Toronto, my daughter Farah could not travel with me and see her beloved aunt. The least she could do was to pen a tribute poem to her beloved Farida aunty that follows below. As readers may be aware, Farah has contributed beautiful poems and stories to this website.

Finally, I ask all readers to once again join with me in praying for the eternal peace of the soul of my beloved sister Farida, who endured her difficulties gracefully and courageously with the continuous blessings of Mawlana Hazar Imam that each of us, as his murids, are bestowed with every second, and every single day of our precious lives.

“Life”, as Mawlana Sultan Mahomed Shah wrote in his Memoirs, “is a great and noble calling, not a mean and grovelling thing to be shuffled through as best as we can but a lofty and exalted destiny.” Farida lived by the tenets of her Ismaili Muslim faith, and has returned to the abode of heavenly peace. “Surely we belong to God and to Him we return” — Holy Qur’an, 2:156.


In Memory of Our Dearest Farida Hassam

Farida Hassam (d. April 29, 2022). Photo: Farah Tejani. Passings Simerg
Farida Hassam (d. April 29, 2022, age 78). Photo: Farah Tejani. Click on image for enlargement.


Letting you go was not easy,
Very painful and difficult to endure…
However, watching you suffer with such immense pain,
Was even harder for us to bear.

You were a pillar of strength and dignity,
Even through trials and tribulations,
Like a mountain piercing the sky,
Nothing would shake you…

Nothing could break you.

You were never one to complain,
You faced every battle for your life,
Head on,
Using your faith,
And your strong desire to live,
And your love for your family and friends.

While we watched on,
Praying for the best outcome.

You would always assure us,
“I am in God’s hands.”

And against all odds
You would always prevail.

Not many could go through,
What you did…
Your faith was tested time and again,
But you never let go of Mawla’s Hands.

Your beauty and sophistication
And your Pure heart,
And unconditional compassion,
Touched all of us, who knew you…
And even those of us who didn’t,
But wanted to.

You always kept busy with hobbies and interests,
You’d even sew some of your own outfits,
Always vibrant colors and flowers so real
You could almost smell them.

You also enjoyed making
Hundreds and hundreds of prayer beads,
That were then Blessed and given out.

You were the prettiest flower,
Who enjoyed growing a garden of sunflowers and tulips,
And then painting them so vividly
Your palette bursting with hues.

And then, just when we thought the worst was over,
You would be hit by another serious health crisis.

But you would be so brave and assure us,
“What doesn’t kill you, Makes you stronger.”
And stronger she was.

But this time, sadly, was your time to go,
But we know that we can be assured,
We know in our hearts,
That you will always be watching from Above.

Date posted: May 29, 2022.


We invite you to submit your condolences and tributes to Farida Hassam in the comments box below or by clicking on LEAVE A COMMENT.

About the writers: Farah Tejani is a creative writer based in Vancouver. She has become a regular contributor of poems and stories to this website, and readers are invited to click HERE for a summary of her beautiful writings. Her incredible mother, Rashida, now retired, lives in Richmond, BC, and has encouraged her daughter in all her literary pursuits over the past 30 years. Both mother and daughter continue to inspire each other as they go through life’s challenges. Malik Merchant, co-author with Rashida to the tribute to Farida, is the founding publisher and editor of Simerg (2009) and its two sister blogs, Barakah (2017) and Simergphotos (2012).

Simerg invites Ismaili families to submit obituaries and tributes to deceased members of their families, whether they passed away recently or in the past. Please review PASSINGS on how to prepare and submit your tribute.

Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos. Simerg’s editor Malik may be reached at

A Tribute to a Great and Long-Serving Ismaili Missionary, Alwaeza Gulshan S. Alidina, As She Passes Away in Toronto at the Age of 93

Inna lillahi wa inna ilayhi raji’un
“Surely we belong to God and to Him we return” — Holy Qur’an, 2:156

“Life is a great and noble calling, not a mean and grovelling thing to be shuffled through as best as we can but a lofty and exalted destiny.” — Mawlana Sultan Mahomed Shah, His Highness the Aga Khan III (1877-1957), 48th Imam of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims.


Practically every morning after saying our prayers, I spend some time reminiscing about services that are rendered by tens of thousands of murids (one who has given allegiance and pledged loyalty to the Ismaili Imam, namely His Highness the Aga Khan) around the world to the jamat (community), its institutions and to the Imam-of-the-Time. Over the past 60 years of my services to the jamat in East Africa and Canada, I have been fortunate to encounter and develop special bonds of friendships with countless such individuals serving the Imamat in both honorary and professional capacities.

Ismaili missionary Gulshan Alidina passes away at the age of 93, Simerg tribute by Rashid
The Ismaili jamat in Canada will miss the beautiful and cheerful smiling face of Alwaeza Raisaheba Gulshan S. Alidina (December 20, 1928 – May 11, 2022). Photo: Samsoudine and Gulshan Alidina Family Collection.

One group of people that has constantly amazed me and has been in my heart and thoughts are the missionaries (waezin) of the past and present eras who have been responsible for molding the lives of millions of murids throughout our Ismaili history, by imparting religious knowledge and understanding as well as inculcating the ethic of the Islamic faith. Referred to in contemporary times as Alwaez or Alwaeza, historically the missionaries were often designated titles such as Dai, Hujjat or Pirs in the Ismaili Tariqah (path) of Islam. Several individuals who held such positions were also given the mandate and responsibility of disseminating the faith among non-Ismailis, especially in the Middle East, Central and South Asia. In the last two years, during the Covid-19 pandemic we have seen Ismaili missionaries and scholars appearing in weekly online Jamati programs, and talking openly about the Ismaili Tariqah in the context of the Islamic faith, and also articulating the ethic of maintaining a strong balance between our spiritual and material lives, an emphasis that Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, has laid on his community throughout the past 64 years of his Imamat.

Over the last few decades, the Ismaili community has seen numerous outstanding Ismaili missionaries pass away. Their rich and inspiring lives have not been told and their works are awaiting proper documentation for future research. It was for this reason that my suggestion to the editor of this website, Malik, to launch a series on Ismaili missionaries was welcomed by him with gratitude and enthusiasm. In recent years, we have seen brief tributes and articles on some of the deceased missionaries such as Abualy Alibhai (d. 2008, age 89), Amirali Gillani (d. 2020, age 75), Sultanali Mohamed (d. 2020, age 93), Nizar Chunara (d. 2021, age 81), and Malik’s own parents Jehangir (d. 2018, age 89) and Malek Merchant (d. 2021, age 89). I wanted to launch the series with an Alwaez or Alwaeza who was still alive. There are many, but I could think of no one to begin the series with other than Alwaeza Gulshan Alidina who, with her husband Alwaez Samsoudine, has served the jamats around the world for 60 years.

Alas, while Alwaeza Gulshan Alidina’s piece was awaiting publication on this website, I learnt with deep sadness that she was unwell and in hospital. Then, with profound grief, I received the news that she passed away peacefully on Wednesday, May 11, 2022 at the age of 93. She is survived by her beloved husband, Alwaez Rai Samsoudine Alidina, daughters Khatidja Mohammed and Fatima Alidina, and grandchildren Shamsa Alidina, Tanwir and Sohail Alidina.

Ismaili missionaries Gulshan and Samsoudine passings simerg
Alwaeza Raisaheba Gulshan Alidina (d. May 11, 2022) and her husband Alwaez Rai Samsoudine pictured in Toronto with their daughters, Khatidja and Fatima (extreme left), and grandchildren Shamsa, Tanwir and Sohail. Photo: Samsoudine and Gulshan Alidina Family Collection.

Alwaeza Gulshan’s funeral ceremonies took place on Saturday, May 14th at Toronto’s Scarborough Jamatkhana — where all Ismaili funeral ceremonies in the Metro Toronto are held. The funeral and burial ceremonies were followed by special prayers (known as samar and zyarat) for the departed soul at Richmond Hill Jamatkhana during evening prayers. Alwaeza was very well known and popular in many parts of the world, and it it is expected that many of her colleagues, friends and family members will hold samars in their respective Jamatkhanas.

Alwaeza Gulshan Alidina and her beloved husband Alwaez Samsoudine Alidina had an amazingly long track record of services to the Jamat, and over the past sixty years, like their late friends Jehangir and Malesultan Merchant, served the Jamat unitedly with the goal to teach the Ismaili tariqah and its essence to murids of Mawlana Hazar Imam. Gulshan and Samsoudine’s inspiring waezes (sermons) were very well attended wherever they preached. They were known as the missionaries from Madagascar. Often the person reading an announcement about their forthcoming sermon, would refer to them as Madagascarwala (i.e. of or belonging to Madagascar). That was in a sense part of their identity, and the community members would show up in very large numbers to listen to them and benefit from their knowledge and wisdom.

Gulshan and her future husband, Samsoudine, both joined the waezin training programme that was offered in Karachi in 1958. Gulshan had travelled from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (then Tanganyika) for the extensive 2 year programme that was conducted by the outstanding scholar (Late) Professor Javad Muscati. He trained the new students on all aspects of Islam and Ismailism, and the recitation of the Holy Qur’an. Gulshan and Samsoudine both said that they could not have studied under a more knowledgeable person than Professor Javad.

On completing the waezin program, the qualifying students were presented with certificates by none other than Mawlana Hazar Imam, who bestowed the new waezin with many blessings for their success. It was during that precious moment in Karachi that Gulshan delivered a waez in the presence of Mawlana Hazar Imam. Gulshan found it unthinkable that her very first waez to the Jamat would be in front of Mawlana Hazar Imam.

Aga Khan listening to sermon Simerg
Alwaeza Gulshan Alidina presenting a waez (sermon) in the presence of Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, folloing her graduation from the Karachi waezin training program, September 27, 1960. Photo: Kamrudin Rashid Collection.

Indeed, Mawlana Hazar Imam’s remarks on the waez that she delivered on September 27, 1960 deeply inspired and motivated Alwaeza Gulshan in her career goals. Mawlana Hazar Imam said after the waez that it was one of the most impressive waez he had yet heard, and that Alwaeza in delivering the waez had done well.

After completing her waezin training program in Karachi, Gulshan returned to Tanzania. A proposal of marriage from Samsoudine, who had studied with her in Karachi, was accepted and she commenced her journey of service to the Jamat as a waezin and teacher with the Ismailia Association in Madagascar, her husband’s home. She served in Madagascar from 1960 until 1974, after which the couple settled in Paris for a brief period. The family then made their home in Canada, first in Montreal and then in Toronto. She served with the Ismailia Association, that later came to be known as ITREB (the Ismaili Tariqah and Religious Education Board) from 1978 until the mid 1990’s. Upon her retirement, she continued to give waezes and serve the jamat in an honorary capacity. This she continued to do until the last stages of her life.

Throughout her waezin career, and because of her excellent knowledge and oratory, she received invitations to deliver waezes in many parts of Africa including Mozambique, South Africa, and East Africa. Following her highly successful waez tour to East Africa in 1968, Mawlana Hazar Imam sent a message to the president of the Ismailia Association for Tanzania, Rai Shamshudin Tejpar, in which he expressed his deep happiness and pleasure with Alwaeza’s excellent work. He sent her his affectionate paternal and maternal loving blessings for the good work that she had done and for her devoted services. Later in life, Alwaeza also travelled to many European countries, where Ismailis had made new homes, and also travelled to deliver sermons in distant Australia and New Zealand. She was successful and popular because she worked hard and was skillful with the Jamat, and always carried with her the blessings of Mawlana Hazar Imam.

Alwaeza Gulshan’s death lives a big vacuum in the jamat and in her family. She was 93 and lived a rich and purposeful life, sharing her wisdom into her late age and inspiring the jamat, both young and old alike.

We convey our sincere and deep condolences to Alwaez Samsoudine and all the members of her family, and pray that Alwaeza’s soul may rest in ternal peace. We wish everyone in her family the courage and fortitude to face her immense loss.

The services rendered by Alwaeza Gulshan will always be remembered by Ismailis around the world. We sincerely hope that everything possible will be done to preserve the written and oral legacy that she has left behind, so that future generations of the jamat are inspired by a great dai of the contemporary era, who served her 49th Hereditary Ismaili Imam Mawlana Shah Karim al Hussaini Aga Khan, with love and devotion.

Date posted: May 19, 2022.


We invite you to submit your condolences, memories and tributes to Alwaeza Gulshan Alidina by completing the feedback form below or by clicking on Leave a comment.


Kamrudin Rashid
Kamrudin Rashid

About the writer: Born in Zanzibar, Kamrudin Rashid lived in both Zanzibar as well as in Pemba from 1946 until after 1964 Zanzibar Revolution that saw the island merge with mainland Tanganyika into a unified country called Tanzania. He then settled in Dar es Salaam, before making Canada his home in early 1975. Kamru was in Pemba during Mawlana Hazar Imam’s historic visit on November 18th, 1957. Kamru has served the Ismaili community in honorary and professional positions for over six decades, and today continues to serve and contribute to the Ismaili institutions. Please also read his co-authored piece with Shahbanu Abdulla by clicking on Mawlana Hazar Imam’s Pemba visit.


Simerg invites Ismaili families to submit obituaries and tributes for deceased members of their families. For guidelines, please click Passings.

Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Please also visit our sister website Barakah, dedicated to Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, and our photo blog Simergphotos.

Simerg’s editor Malik may be reached at

John Halani, a Prominent Figure in the Ismaili Muslim Community Passes Away in Vancouver at the age of 85

John Halani, titanic Ismaili leader, passings, tribute Simerg
John Halani

As thousands of Ugandan-Asian refugees prepare to mark the 50th anniversary of their arrival in Canada later this year after being ousted from Uganda, John Halani will be remembered as the man who helped scores of them resettle in Greater Vancouver, writes award winning journalist and acclaimed author Fabian Dawson in a special column published on May 9, 2022 in the New Canadian Media.

Bestowed the title of Rai by Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, during the Golden Jubilee Year for his devoted services to the Ismaili community, Halani passed away on May 2 at the age of 85, as his fellow Muslims, were celebrating the Eid ul-Fitr at the end of Ramadan.

A leader in Canada’s Shia Imami Ismaili Muslim community, Halani, was the Honorary Consul for Uganda in British Columbia for more than two decades. “He built bridges with his passion for helping others,” said Sam Hirji, a Vancouver-based printer, who was part of the exodus from Uganda, some 50 years ago. “For us Ismailis’ he was the go-to-guy for any and all community projects,” Hirji told New Canadian Media.

Farouk Verjee, a past president of His Highness the Aga Khan Ismaili Council for Canada, said, ““He lived to help others and was a consummate community volunteer from his early days in Uganda and later here in Vancouver with the Immigrant Services Society.”

John Halani’s funeral ceremonies will take place at the Burnaby Lake Jamatkhana on Tuesday, May 10, at 11:45 AM.

Please click He built bridges with his passion for helping others for Fabian Dawson’s tribute to John Halani.

Date posted: May 10, 2022.


Readers are invited to submit condolences and tributes to John Halani in the comments box below or by clicking on Leave a comment.

Simerg invites Ismaili families to submit obituaries and tributes to deceased members of their families, whether they passed away recently or in the past. Please review PASSINGS on how to prepare and submit your tribute.

Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos. Simerg’s editor Malik may be reached at

A Tribute to My Beloved Papa, Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji (1935 – 2022)


Its just over three months since my papa, Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji, passed away on 14th January 2022. I was aware that Simerg had a Passings category to which one can contribute obituaries or tributes for one’s deceased family members, but my emotions had been all over the place and I could not put pen to paper. How could I best write about my dad’s life and my 56 beautiful years with him? I felt the best was to write as though I were writing a letter to him. This, then, are some of my fond memories of my dad, my beloved papa.

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
A beautiful portrait of Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji taken in November 2021. He passed away two months later on January 14, 2022. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

Dear Papa,

Thank you for the fabulous 56 years of having been blessed as my father. As I sit and write about your life span of 86 years, I feel immensely proud that your journey began on 13th May 1935, in Masaka, Uganda.

Often, when we would drive around London, you would recall your history, and never once did you complain about how difficult it had been, and then you would tell me “I worked hard and I don’t think I have done badly,” with a slight smile.

Although you did well at maths, unlike me who still uses a calculator, it amazed me, that in your time, you had no calculators and your generation of mental maths was as good as today’s technology.

You never completed school or even had a degree to your name. However, having been gifted with a business acumen, and the experience you got through the family business, gave you a sense of a worldly certificate in how to survive and be successful in your own right.

Your father made you join the family business which, due to competition, was difficult to run and you ended up working in Jinja in a shop/bar/restaurant. For four years you slogged 7 days a week and managed to save 13,700 shillings. At that point, you decided to take a break and travel to Tanzania (then Tanganyika). During this short vacation, you met many people who inspired you, and the trip gave you a taste of wanting to travel more and have a better life.

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Kurbanali Mulji pictured during his youthful days, undated photo. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

You made your way to Kampala and came across “GOPE (Zulfikar, Suleiman Kanji, with whom you became best friends. He advised you not to start a business as yet, but perhaps take a course in hairdressing for men as there was only one shop in Kampala at the time, which was Madat’s Hairstyle.

So off you went to the UK with all your savings and reached 5 Palace Gate, which for years remained the focal point and headquarters of the Jamat as well as London’s main Jamatkhana, before the Ismaili Centre was opened in 1985. This property was bought by Prince Aly Khan. When you arrived there, they guided you on how to go about in London. You joined Bogins London School of Hairdressing, on Margaret Street, behind Oxford Circus Station. There you learned the art of trendy haircuts (college boy style) for six months. Mindful of struggles you had undergone, your teacher took sympathy for you as to how you had saved all your life’s earnings for this course. He kindly gave you extra lessons for free and helped you develop more skills. You studied during the day and worked at night at restaurants washing dishes to earn your keep. In those days, you barely made a pound a week. 

After 6 months, you had mastered hairdressing and decided to return home. You purchased all the equipment required to start your business in Kampala. There was only one problem, while you were left with only 1000 shillings, your budget had exceeded by 3000 shillings. Although the goods would take a month or so to reach Africa you were worried how you would be able to raise the 3000 shillings needed to clear customs upon arrival. With panic in your heart, as to who you could ask help from, luck came to your rescue when you entered Salim’s Sweetmart and filled in the football pools lottery. You won £370! You had covered your expenditure and were left with enough to open a shop and name it “HairCo”.

Success followed rapidly and then another family encounter took place. Your brother Mohammed’s health was not so good and he asked you to help run his business that included selling anything from groceries to household goods to textiles imported from abroad. 

In between working, you fell in love and married Nargis Rashid Ladha. Mum decided to work from home selling fabrics that were imported from the UK via Mohammed uncle’s business. Both of you then decided to set up a shop called Nargis Stores. 

It was this trade of textiles that became your passion for fashion. You understood from nylons to chiffons and your taste in buying was simply outstanding. There would be queues for the next delivery. You were blessed with immense barakah and good wisdom. 

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Kurbanali Mulji holding his daughter Aniza, in a photo taken in Uganda in 1967. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

However, in 1972 East Africa faced the biggest shake-up of the mass exodus of Ugandan Asians. With three daughters, myself, Ashifa, Azmina and mum expecting a fourth child,(Rahim born in London) you took us to the UK. I remember landing at Heathrow airport. The weather was dull and gloomy. Perhaps the signs of how times would be changing from sunny Africa to hard times ahead.

You rented a room in Kensington for a few months. A one bedroom, with five of us sharing it. You worked in a laundry, a perfume factory and eventually becoming a bus conductor for a few years. Never did you complain or compare the good times or the “struggle” that you had experienced in Africa and the UK, for it was the “meaning of life”. You worked, took all the shifts you could to make ends meet. Simultaneously from home, you set up a business selling washing up liquids, whilst mum babysat 4 children plus 3 others and catered for homemade takeaways.

This would carry on for 8 years, until one fateful day, while on duty as a bus conductor, you noticed a shop called Classic Textiles on Goldhawk Road, a fabric shop, with a “For Sale” signboard. History was in the making once again. In July 1981, you and mum embarked on making Classic Textiles a thriving business. From royalties, television, catwalk, to the future designers, word of mouth was the best form of advertising. We didn’t have social media but yellow pages phone books. Even though you both had retired, your blood, sweat, tears, and most of all your soul vibrated onto the shelves full of beauty, textures, and colors of rolls of fabrics.

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Kurbanali Mulji in front of his thriving shop, Classic Textiles, on Goldhawk Road in west London, September 2020. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

You still came to overlook the shop during the pandemic to make sure all was well. However, in the late summer of 2021, the benign tumor, which you had for 15 years, suddenly erupted. I can still remember that cold month of November 2021. Both Azmina and I took you to St Mary’s Hospital in Paddington. You could barely walk but managed to make it to the consultant’s office for your biopsy results.

Consultant: Mr. Mulji, for a man of your age, to undergo a biopsy you did very well. But I am afraid, I don’t have good news. It’s cancer you have. I can’t tell you what stage, for that the oncologist will tell you more next week and what therapy can be recommended. Mr. Mulji, do you understand what I am saying?

Papa, when you heard this your face went white and blank. You held onto the stick. I don’t know what thoughts went through you, but tears just flowed from my eyes. 

Papa: Well, I have no regrets. I have lived a good life.

Papa, you still had hope. All the previous years, you would ask me in “Do you think I will live to make it to the Golden Jubilee?”

When you made it through that, you dreamt of the Olympics in a similar tone.

Me: Of course, you will. Look Papa, all your wishes have been fulfilled. You saw the Golden Jubilee, the Olympics, Diamond Jubilee and you saw Serena Williams on the opening day of Wimbledon on court 1!

Papa: I hope I live 5 more years, then I can see Platinum Jubilee too. I will be happy for just five more years.

Me: Inshallah you will see that too.

A week later we went to Charing Cross and met the oncologist. By then you struggled to make it to the lift and did not want a wheelchair. You were quiet all the way. We entered the room and you looked at the oncologist, wishing or hoping for some good news.

Oncologist: Mr. Mulji, as you know that the biopsy report, showed that you have cancer. It’s stage 4. Do you know what stage 4 cancer is?

Papa: No.

Oncologist: Let me explain. It’s a severe form of cancer of the lungs you have and it’s spreading to other parts of your body. Mr. Mulji, a man of your age will find chemotherapy or radiation treatment at this stage too invasive to handle. You are 86 years old. We stop treatment at age 80, that’s the cut-off point in the hospital. You were wise in all these years not to have it investigated as you saw fit that it had done no harm to you. We believe the quality of life is better than the quantity of life. Mr. Mulji is there anything else you would like to ask….

Papa: No. I have had a good life and I have no regrets. I had never been in hospital till recently. So I can say, I am blessed.

Oncologist: That’s very rare for a man of 86 years to have never been in hospital till now. Go home Mr. Mulji and enjoy the remainder of your life. We are still here for you.

We reached home in silence. You were very brave and dignified to have not asked the oncologist the time left. You took it in your stride that whatever time you had remaining you were going to embrace it with peace. When we went upstairs to your bedroom, it was at that point, that the full impact of what the oncologist had told you, really hit you. You burst into tears, you fell onto the bed with great shock and cried and said: “Forgive me if I was a bad father, but I only told you off because I love you all and wanted nothing but the best and to make sure you were all doing the right things in life. 

Me: Papa there is nothing to forgive. Forgive me too if I have done anything to hurt or upset you.

I hugged him. I vowed then, that I would not cry in front of him as the doctors had given him less than a month to live. That evening, all the grandchildren, Alykhan, Jina, Amara and Alim came round to comfort him. He gave them sound advice for the future.

As I write this saddest moment we shared together, my tears are overflowing. I moved into my parent’s place.

Papa, you slept in the hospital bed and I slept on your side of the bed with mum. On that first night, all three of us were in one room. Papa had become the child and I became the parent.

Papa: I am so overjoyed/ happy that you are sharing this room with us.

I was overwhelmed by his sweet words that despite the seriousness of his ill health, he made me feel comfortable that his journey would be of no pain to me.

He was truly blessed, and the doctors were surprised that his level of pain was sustained by paracetamols. He had no morphine. I remember his own GP coming that first night and telling my sister Azmina and I: “We are doctors, scientifically we give time, dates, etc. But remember, it is the Creator, who only knows the time. Don’t think of days or times, just put that at the back of your mind, carry on as normal, spend time with him, and make it comfortable for him. If you worry about what time he has left, you will not be able to help him without constant pain on your face. Believe me, I have seen many miracles in my life when you expect death to happen, the living then somehow lives… so please don’t think of time, none of us know.”

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji and his wife Nargis, both seated at left, are pictured with their family members during a family gathering in December 2021. A beautiful photo of a painting of Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, by the late Pakistani Ismaili artist Gulgee (d. 2007) at the Ismaili Centre London and framed sports memorabilia adorn the dining room walls of Aniza’s home. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

With such words, we both forgot and carried on as normal. He made sure he spoke to everyone who called him. His days flew with many phone calls from his beloved friends and family around the world. The Zoom calls gave him great joy. The relatives, due to Covid-19, came by to see him in small groups. We were happy to see him talk in great depth about his history.

Five days before he passed away, I had cooked him kalio, rice and a dessert. We were so happy that he ate a full meal. He walked normal. For that whole day, I felt a miracle had taken place. I just couldn’t believe he got out of bed normal, without any walking aid. Little did I know that this would be his ‘Last Supper’. I have been told that just before anyone passes away, God kindly allows us to see few moments of happiness with loved ones. I truly have come to conclusion, that this indicates that life with the Creator gives us a foresight that their journey will be a happy one. The following day, Papa, called Altaaf (my husband) and I: “Altaaf, I want you to know, I am going very soon”.

Altaaf: No, you are not going yet. You are going to live still.

As for the shop, not a day goes by, when customers ask: “How are papa and mama?” At that point, I sit them down.

Me: Papa passed away three months ago.

Customer: “No way! My Lord! Papa Gone! Papa Gone. Good man papa was. He helped me you know. He guided me you know. Always honest in advice. Gave me credit you know. Papa gone, I can’t believe it! Am so sad…. papa you know is in heaven. Am telling you. He was such a good man. My papa gone…”

You taught me about how to run a business. How to be kind and respectable to customers. How to help them.

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Kurbanali Mulji pictured in August 2020 with (l to r) daughter Azmina, wife Nargis, daughter Ashifa and granddaughter Jina. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.
Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
(L to R) Alim, Alykhan, Jina and Amar pictured during Eid 2021 with their nana (maternal grandfather) Kurbanali Mulji, centre. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.
Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Aniza, author of this tribute, pictured with her beloved papa Kurbanali Mulji, September 2016. Photo: Aniza Meghani Collection.

Papa: if any new customer/ designer comes in, give them discount. Let them make a bit of money Give them a helping hand to move up in life. If you help them, they will come back again. Customers are our bread and butter. I don’t mean customers are always right, but a little help to them goes a long way. Don’t overprice fabrics for more money. Its greed. A little profit is halal (permissible). God does not like greed. There will always be stock. Be honest in your transactions.

In the early hours of Friday 14th January 2022, I witnessed him call out to late Mohammed Uncle:

Mohamed, come back, Mohamed …

I knew then this would be his day to return to His Creator. This journey of time is really short. There were no tears, but thankfulness, laughter, conversations and prayers for 11 hours before the undertakers came. 

As another dear friend quoted yesterday: Dream until its reality. MAN GIVES YOU REPUTATION, CHARACTER IS WHO YOU ARE…

Papa was a firm believer on these quotes. May his soul rest in eternal peace. Ameen.

Date posted: April 28, 2022.


We invite you to submit your condolences and tributes to Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji in the comments box below or by clicking on Leave a comment. Should you encounter issues in completing the comment box, please email your tribute to; subject Kurbanali K. Mulji.

Aniza Meghani Letter to Dad Kurbanali Kassamali Mulji Passings Simerg Insights from around the world
Aniza Meghani

About the writer: Originally from Uganda, Aniza Meghani lives in London, England, and is an entrepreneur of classic textiles fabrics.

We invite you to read Aniza’s highly acclaimed piece Ismailis on Social Media: You Need to Take Care and STOP Indiscriminate Likes, Follows and Forwards!

Simerg invites Ismaili families to submit obituaries and tributes to deceased members of their families, whether they passed away recently or in the past. Please review PASSINGS on how to prepare and submit your tribute.

Before departing this website please take a moment to review Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos. Simerg’s editor Malik may be reached at

In Memoriam: Vazir Hon. Al Noor (Nick) Kassum (1924-2021) – One of Tanzania’s Earliest Voices for the Global South at the United Nations


Vazir Hon. Al Noor Kassum, popularly known as Nick Kassum, a retired Tanzanian politician passed away peacefully in Dar es Salaam on Thursday, November 18, 2021. His three sons, Saleem, Diamond and Jemal-ud-Din (Jamil) all flew to the Tanzanian capital from North America to be with their father at his bedside in the last few hours of his life.

Educated in Tanzania, India and the United Kingdom where he was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn in 1954, Al Noor Kassum was a prominent figure in Tanzanian politics as well as in the Ismaili Muslim community (Jamat) where he served initially as an Education Administrator in the mid-1950s and early 1960s, and later towards the end of his life as the first Personal Representative of His Highness the Aga Khan in Tanzania.

Born as Noordin (‘Light of the Faith’) into the well-known Ismaili family of Count Kassum Sunderji, known for his years of dedicated service to the Imamat and at whose residence, the 48th Ismaili Imam, Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, His Highness the Aga Khan III (1885-1957), stayed during his Diamond Jubilee in 1945.

Nick grew up in a family where service to the Jamat and the Imam-of-the-Time was a natural part of life. Nick was raised in colonial Tanganyika, as Tanzania was known before independence, where access to education was not available to the largest segment of society. Colonial society being highly stratified, opportunities for both basic and higher education were allocated strictly on racial lines. However, Nick was fortunate. By dint of family circumstances, for his further education he was able to go first to Britain and then to India. His early education was disrupted by the Second World War which was raging while he was still a teenager, and in 1950, Nick found himself back in Tanganyika working in his father’s business.

In 1950, at the suggestion of the British Governor in Tanganyika, Sir Edward Twining, Nick decided to go to England to study for the Bar. His father was not keen on Nick leaving his young family and going away for studies. Nick wrote to Imam Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah for advice and the Imam blessed his endeavour, highlighting that people like him would be needed in public life in the years to come. Consequently, in 1951 Nick left for the United Kingdom with his wife Shirin and their three infant sons. Meanwhile, as Nick’s professional career unfolded, Shirin dedicated her life to the family, the Jamat and the Ismaili Imamat.

Article continues below

Prince Aly Khan with London Ismaili Jamat
1952: The late Prince Aly Khan (seated, centre) with the London Jamat at a gathering at the Javeri residence in Hampstead, London. Shortly after this event, Hon. Al Noor Kassum (shown standing next to his wife Shirin, extreme left) was appointed by Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, His Highness the Aga Khan III, as the first President of the Ismaili Council of the United Kingdom. Photo: (Late) Ameer Janmohamed family collection. Click on photo for enlargement.
Al Noor Kassum and Aga Khan III
Hon. Al Noor Kassum looks on as Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah, His Highness the Aga Khan III, signs documents for the purchase of the building at 51 Kensington Court in London that became the first centre of the Ismaili community in the United Kingdom. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection.
Begum Aga Khan and Al Noor Kassum at opening of Knesington Court Jamatkhana.
Mata Salamat, Begum Om Habibeh Aga Khan, cuts the ribbon during the opening ceremony of the Ismailia Social and Residential Club at 51 Kensington Court on May 17, 1953. The building also included a Jamatkhana prayer room. Looking on are Ismaili Council President Al Noor Kassum (left) and the Mukhi of the London Jamat, Tajdin Jiwan Hirji, on right. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection.

In London while studying for his law qualification, Nick played an important role in serving the Ismaili Jamat (community). He was appointed by the Imam to be the first President of the Ismaili Council of the United Kingdom, in a Jamat that was mainly made up of students from East Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It was during Nick’s tenure as President that 51 Kensington Court was purchased under guidance from Imam Sultan Mahomed Shah. This address became the first centre for the Ismaili community in the UK. This was soon followed by 5 Palace Gate in South Kensington which remained the centre until 1985 when the newly purpose-built Ismail Centre in South Kensington was inaugurated as a special Silver Jubilee Project of the 49th Imam, Shah Karim al Hussaini, His Highness the Aga Khan IV (henceforth referred to as the Aga Khan).

The years Nick studied in England were momentous ones for the decolonisation of Africa, with leading Africans such as Hastings Banda, Seretse Khama, Kwame Nkrumah, and others studying in the country and aspiring to go back to Africa someday to lead the campaign for political freedom. Little did Nick realise then that he too, one day, would become part of this movement, if not at the grassroots level, then certainly as its spokesperson at the highest fora in the world. After qualifying as a barrister, Nick went back to Tanganyika in 1954 where he enrolled as an Advocate of the High Court of Tanganyika and entered into legal practice, first with an established firm, Dharsee and Mc Roberts, and soon thereafter, on his own.

In 1954, Imam Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah Aga Khan appointed Nick as the Administrator of the Aga Khan Schools in Tanganyika — a position he held for the next 10 years. The Imam also bestowed upon him the title of “Vazir” for his many years of meritorious service. These ten years were crucial in the history of Tanganyika as the country attained its independence in 1961.

Aga Khan with Al Noor Kassum
Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, pictured in 1959 with the three East African Aga Khan Education Board territorial administrators. Standing (from left to right), Count Madatali A. Shariff, Kenya; Vazir Al Noor Kassum, Tanganyika (now Tanzania); and Vazir Jimmy R.K.S Verji, Uganda. Photo: Commemorative Issue 1977-1978, Sixty Years of Ismaili Education in Kenya, page 28.

Immediately prior to independence, the new Aga Khan, Prince Karim Aga Khan, on assuming his role as the 49th Imam of the Ismailis decided to realign the education institutions pioneered in his grandfather’s time under the old colonial system of government to the dynamics of new modern African states with their own needs for nation building. Nick was allocated this task in Tanganyika, which entailed upgrading existing schools and building new ones. Many students of both genders at the Aga Khan schools now sought scholarships to pursue higher education both in East Africa and overseas, a facility that was made possible by the Aga Khan. Consequently, a large number of men and women gained admission to institutions of higher learning in East Africa and some went to the United Kingdom, the USA, and elsewhere.

It was in early 1961, just after the country attained self-rule, that Nick was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Education and Information, Oscar Kambona. Within months, Kambona was appointed Tanganyika’s first Foreign Minister and was succeeded by Solomon Eliufoo. Nick was asked by Eliufoo to join Tanganyika’s delegation to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in France. It was during UNESCO’s General Conference that Eliufoo suddenly fell ill, and Nick found himself heading the delegation. At the General Conference, Nick was appointed as Rapporteur to the one of the two commissions set up by the General Conference, called the Administrative Commission. Soon thereafter, he was appointed as a co-Chair of this Commission. One of the tasks of the Commission then was to preserve the monuments of Nubia (The Temples of Abu Simbel) in the face of the ecological threat posed by the construction of the Aswan Dam in Egypt. Nick worked very closely with Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan who was appointed by UNESCO to be the Executive Secretary of the International Action Committee for the Preservation of Nubia. According to Prince Sadruddin, the campaign to save the monuments of Nubia, was one of UNESCO’s great achievements. 

Article continues below

Nubia monuments Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan Al Noor Kassum Simerg tribute
The Nubian Monuments are in an archaeological zone of primary importance which extends from Aswan to the Sudanese border. It includes magnificent monuments as the Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel and the Sanctuary of Isis at Philae, which were saved from the rising waters of the Nile thanks to the International Campaign launched by UNESCO, in 1960 to 1980. Photo: UNESCO.

With a background in, and a passion for, education, Nick spent his early years after the country’s independence (late 1961) with educational issues, the main national objective being to enhance opportunities in primary education and to promote adult literacy. The building of a national university was very high on the priority list of the new country. Nick devoted his time mainly to the educational priorities of the country. This was not his only preoccupation, for he was also instrumental in setting up the Mwananchi Development Corporation that became the primary agency for the Tanzanian Government to ensure that it was able to govern the country’s resources more effectively and equitably for national development. In 1964 after the revolution in Zanzibar, when Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the new Republic of Tanzania, Nick was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Industries, Natural Resources, and Power.

These early days of his political career were momentous for various developments that were taking place in Africa where Tanzania under the stewardship of Julius Nyerere was beginning to play an important international role. These developments included the advent of independence in Uganda and Kenya in 1962 and 1963 respectively, the founding of the Organization for African Unity in Addis Ababa in 1963 and the mobilisation of major freedom movements in Southern Africa. The banning of political parties in South Africa and Mozambique led to thousands of political refugees seeking asylum in Tanzania. President Nyerere, a Pan Africanist par excellence, played a major supportive role in all these freedom movements.

In early 1965, at the behest of then then Director General of UNESCO, Rene Maheu, and with the approval of President Nyerere, Nick was appointed as Senior Liaison Officer, Bureau of Relations with International Organizations and Programmes at UNESCO in Paris — a position he held for two years. His work entailed coordinating UNESCO’s activities in the field of education with various international agencies such as the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) in Rome and the ILO (International Labour Organization) in Geneva. It also included persuading the UNDP (United Nationals Development Programme) in New York and the World Bank in Washington DC to finance various UNESCO projects.

Article continues below

Al Noor Kassam with UNSG U Thant
Hon. Al Noor Kassum with UN Secretary-General U Thant at a meeting in Rome of the UN Administrative Committee on Coordination, May 1969. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection. Click on photo for enlargement.

Among other duties Nick performed was participating in international conferences of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the UN’s Administrative Committee on Coordination in both Geneva and New York. At the end of 1966, Rene Maheu asked Nick if he would be happy to head UNESCO’s Liaison Office at the UN in New York. Nick once again sought Nyerere’s approval, took up the offer and moved to New York in 1967. It was at the end of his two-year assignment in New York that C.V. Narasimhan of India, Chef de Cabinet to the UN Secretary General U Thant, invited Nick to join the UN Secretariat as assistant Secretary General at which time Nick again sought Nyerere’s approval only to be told that Tanzania needed his services more than the UN. Nick placed service to his country before service to his international career and came back to Tanzania to take on some pivotal national positions offered to him by the president.

Article continues below

Al Noor Nick Kassum UNSG Waldheim and Sen Kennedy, Tribute Simerg
Hon. Al Noor Kassum, with UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim, Richard Gardner and US Senator Edward Kennedy at a UN workshop to discuss the report on how the United Nations system could be restructured. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection. Click on photo for enlargement.

For the next 50 years, Nick made Tanzania his principal residence and served in a number of capacities. We will just make brief mention of these in order to show the energy he brought to the positions he was asked to head and the innovations he made. On his return to Tanzania in 1969, he was appointed as Deputy General Manager of Williamson Diamond Mines in Mwadui near Shinyanga in which the Government of Tanzania was a shareholder but was often kept in the dark with regard to major decision making. Nick went down Shinyanga to the mine and spent the next few years studying the operational dynamics and suggesting significant changes in management. He commissioned a report called the Mwadui Report that showed the workings on the ground to the chagrin of the administration. This led to the appointment of the first Black African, Matthew Luhanga, as the General Manager of Williamson Diamond Mines.

In 1972, President Nyerere once again called upon Nick to play an important role in the country, this time as the East African Community (EAC) Minister of Finance and Administration. The appointment had to be endorsed by the Presidents of the three East African countries that made up the EAC which are Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Nick feared that Idi Amin, who had constantly been attacking the Asians in Uganda, would withhold his ratification but surprisingly Idi Amin added his signature without demure six months before he expelled all the Asians from Uganda. Even so, Amin always treated Nick with courtesy and respect. During Nick’s tenure as East African Minister for Finance and Administration, the United Nations invited him to chair a group of 25 experts evaluating how the United Nations system could be restructured, following a UN resolution on the New World Economic Order. After the report was submitted to the UN Secretary General, Kurt Waldheim, a workshop was held where the panelists included Kurt Waldheim, and US Senator Edward Kennedy. The report was then placed before the UN General Assembly.

In March 1977, anticipating the impending demise of the EAC, President Nyerere invited Nick to head the Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals. This was a few years after the price of petroleum soared as a result of the 1973 Arab-Israel war. The government established the Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) as the chief purchasing agency, and the task of obtaining oil for the country on the world market for the very little foreign exchange that Tanzania had at that time devolved on Nick’s shoulders. Nick led ministerial delegations to places as diverse as Angola, Libya, Iran and Algeria, and his basic message was: “We are having temporary problems and so cannot pay immediately for the oil we need. However, we do have natural resources and so can pay you in the longer term. Could you please let us have oil on credit? And they did so.” (Al Noor Kassum, Africa’s Winds of Change: Memoirs of an International Tanzanian, p. 123, see book highlight below).

In 1991, after retiring from politics, His Highness the Aga Khan appointed Nick as his Personal Representative in Tanzania in which capacity Nick helped with the establishment of projects undertaken by the Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) in Tanzania. These ranged from healthcare and education to culture and tourism. Nick also helped in negotiating the Protocol of Cooperation between the Government of Tanzania and the AKDN, which facilitated the AKDN’s contribution to Tanzania’s social and economic development. Nick held this position till 2002.

Article continues below

Aga Khan, Benjamin Mkapa, Kikwete and Al Noor Nick Kassum protocol signing Tanzania
His Highness the Aga Khan and (then) Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa exchange copies of a protocol for development cooperation, with Jakaya Kikwete (future and fourth President of Tanzania) and Hon. Al Noor Kassum in attendance, August 2001. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection.

In 1993, President Ali Hassan Mwinyi appointed Nick as the Chancellor of Sokoine University of Agriculture in Morogoro, Tanzania, and also bestowed on Nick the title of ‘Honourable’ for life. On November 28 1997, as Chancellor of the University, it fell upon Nick to award an honorary degree in philosophy to Nyerere in recognition of his lifelong service to humanity and his support to African countries struggling for their independence (see photo at the beginning of this post). To come back full circle, a year earlier Nyerere had appointed Nick as a trustee of a new foundation bearing his name called the Mwalimu Nyerere Foundation, established to promote peace, unity and people-centred development in Africa. On January 10 2000, after President Nyerere’s death, the Board of Trustees appointed Nick as interim Chairman for one year. Hon. Salim Ahmed Salim, a former Secretary General of the Organization of African Unity and former President of the UN General Assembly then succeeded Nick to this position.

Article continues below

l Noor Kassum confers an honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree on the first Tanzanian President, Julius Nyerere, on 28 November 1997
As Chancellor of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Hon. Al Noor Kassum confers an honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree on the first Tanzanian President, Julius Nyerere, on November 28, 1997. Photo: Al Noor Kassum’s family collection. Click on photo for enlargement.

Nick’s funeral at the Karimjee Hall in Dar es Salaam on November 20, 2021 was attended by leading members of the Tanzanian Government. The venue, where some sixty years earlier he had crossed the floor to join the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), was dignified but not sad because it celebrated a life well lived in the service of the country and community. His funeral was attended by Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa, ex-President Jakaya Kikwete, ex-President Amani Karume, ex-Prime Minister Joseph Warioba and many prominent Government officials and dignitaries who paid their respect.

Conveying condolence on behalf of President Mama Samia Suluhu Hassan to the Kassum family, the Tanzanian nation, the Aga Khan and the Ismaili community, the Prime Minister recollected the years of dedicated service Vazir Hon. Al Noor Kassum had rendered to the country, highlighting Nick’s mentorship to so many individuals who would become leaders of Tanzania. The Prime Minister also mentioned the deep friendship that Nick had enjoyed with President Nyerere and the bond of trust they shared in the service of the country, which he referred to as unique and very special. During the dignified funeral, Nick’s eldest son Saleem, on behalf of the Kassum family, thanked the past and present leaders of Tanzania, the leaders of the Ismaili Jamat and the AKDN for their presence, and for their kind words of tribute to Nick’s life .

Portrait of Vazir Hon. Al Noor (Nick) Kassum (1924-2021), Tanzania politician, Ismaili leader
Vazir Hon. Al Noor Kassum (1924-2021)

According to Mohamed M. Keshavjee, an international specialist on cross cultural mediation: “Nick Kassum was a very special individual of prodigious diplomatic capability whose multiple talents were underpinned by sound administrative competence and hard work. Nick served Tanzania as a diplomat in the formative years of its evolution. He served the UN at a critical time of decolonisation. He enjoyed President Nyerere’s full confidence and was asked to come back to serve the country in a number of critical portfolios. Nick acquitted himself with great aplomb and assiduity of purpose. He excelled in whatever was assigned to him but, in the process, he never lost his humility and compassionate disposition which allowed others to shine when he found them capable of serving the country he so dearly loved.”

Rest in Peace dear Nick. What you had; you gave. What you could, you did.

Date posted: February 15, 2022.
Last updated: February 24, 2022 (new photo, Mawlana Hazar Imam with East African Ismaili education administrators)


We invite you to submit your condolences, memories and tributes to Vazir Hon. Al Noor (Nick) Kassum by completing the feedback form below or by clicking on Leave a comment.

Navroz Lakhani
Navroz Lakhani

About the writer: Navroz Lakhani (B.Sc Special Mathematics, London University, 1970), worked as a Software Engineer at major corporations, British Gas, Bell Canada and Saudi Arabian Airlines. From 2011-2016, he served as Management & Program Liaison Officer (MPLO) at the AKDN Diplomatic Office in Tanzania. Currently he is conducting research on the history of Ismaili Muslims in Africa and the contribution of AKDN in several countries in a rising Africa.


Africa's Winds of Change by Al Noor Kassum

Al Noor Kassum’s Africa’s Winds of Change — Memoirs of an International Tanzanian documents the changes that took place in Tanzania from the middle of the 20th century to around the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, through the prism of an East African Asian experience. The author sheds new light on the character and legacy of Julius Nyerere, who emerges as radically different from the stereotypical anti-Western firebrand which became his image in the West. Africa’s Winds of Change offers a fascinating personal history of a unique African nation at a critical stage in its development. Africa’s Winds of Change, hardback, 256 pages, was first published by I.B Tauris in October 2007. It is currently unavailable at new and used booksellers as well as other online sources that we checked out, including Amazon, AbeBooks and eBay.


More tributes to Al Noor Kassam (external links):

1. Daily News (Tanzania) — Reflections on Contributions, Legacy of Al Noor Kassum
2. The Citizen (Tanzania) — The Life and Times of Nick Kassum


Simerg invites Ismaili families to submit obituaries and tributes for deceased members of their families. For guidelines, please click Passings. Before leaving this website please take a moment to visit Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also, visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos.

The editor of the 3 websites, Malik, may be reached at

Mrs. Merchant with senior students of Central London BUI

To Mrs. Merchant: “With Love to the Best Ever” – Memories from Her Students in London, England

Publisher/Editor Simerg, Simergphotos and Barakah

Exactly a year ago, on Thursday, January 21, 2021, my beloved mum “Mrs. Merchant” (Alwaeza Maleksultan Jehangir Merchant) passed away peacefully at the age of 89. Tributes and condolences poured from all over the world, which deeply touched the entire family. The family also received a Talika of blessings from Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan, as well as a message of condolence from Prince Rahim Aga Khan, both of which deeply inspired and gave courage to the family during their period of bereavement. My dad, Jehangir, her loving husband of 66 years, had died three years earlier on May 27, 2018. They both served Imamat institutions on a professional and voluntary basis as missionaries and religious education teachers for more than 60 years.

Story continues below

mr and mrs merchant
This July 1992 photo of Mr. and Mrs. Merchant is from the first page of the tribute album prepared by the BUI students of Central London, England on their retirement from the Ismaili Tariqah and Religious Education Board (ITREB) for the UK. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.

I was unable attend the funeral because of Covid-19, and other challenges. Knowing my situation, my mum told me on Facetime on the morning of her admission to the hospital, “Malik, tereku nai aneka hai” (you are not going to travel). She passed away 12 hours later.

Three months later, I travelled to close her rented home and spent three weeks packing my parents belongings. As mentioned earlier my beloved father, had died 3 years earlier. As I went through thousands of pieces of objects that included their beautifully handwritten waezes (sermons) I came across a priceless album of tributes prepared by Baitul Ilm (BUI) students of Central London, England, for her retirement. All these objects, including the album, were packed and shipped to Ottawa, numbering some 86 boxes. The major categories of the contents were identified on a spreadsheet.

Story continues below after photos and tribute speech

Mrs. Merchant Tribute
Title page of tribute album prepared for Mrs. Merchant. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection,
Ismaili teacher and missionary Mrs. Merchant retirement bouquet of flowers
A young girl presents a bouquet of flowers to Mrs. Merchant on her retirement as teacher and waezin with ITREB for the UK, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.


The Untiring Efforts of Mr. and Mrs. Merchant

Ismaili religious education teacher and missionary Mrs. Merchant
An absolutely beautiful Mrs. Merchant helped by Tasneem Virani cuts a cake at the tribute party held on the occasion of her retirement from ITREB UK. She and her husband were recognized for their services to the UK Jamat in a speech delivered by Ms. Virani (see excerpts below). Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.


Let us take our minds back in the 1970’s when they [Mr. and Mrs. Merchant] worked seven days and evenings, spreading their knowledge to not only the children, but the leaders, the Mukhisahebs and Kamdiasahebs, as well as all the members of the Jamat. They would be in London one morning, then Brighton later in the afternoon, then back to another centre in London, then off again — all by British Rail.

They continued to be extremely involved with teaching, preparing teaching notes, training Mukhisahebs and Kamadiasahebs, perfecting varas [recitations] for children, training the teachers, training and supporting those coming into our Tariqua and so on. This is a real backbone of our strength in our institution as we see today and will never be forgotten. Our gratitude for those untiring efforts have no bounds.

I remember the long hours we all spent together in the stages when we we were planning to formalize the structure of religious education as we know it today. This format of Bait-al-Ilm is the culmination of the untiring and continued support and input from you both, Mr. and Mrs. Merchant.

Mrs. Merchant, you have taught us to follow, in spirit and in action, the most important Farman of Mawlana Hazar Imam of not accepting mediocrity but always aiming at the highest level and not compromising on quality. The time you spent on an individual child and the patience you show all make you a role model for those left now to do the job you started so long ago and continue to do.

We pray to Mawlana Hazar Imam to shower you with blessings that you will have happiness, long life, strength and courage to continue your hard work and give to others what what you have given to us. Ameen, Tasneem Virani, Administrator.


Tribute to Mrs. Merchant
A tribute by a BUI student to Mrs. Merchant from the tribute album presented to her by the London BUI students, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.

.…Story continued

With some help from members of the Jamat, I began unpacking a few of the boxes that I had carefully labelled at the time of packing. JAM #55 (Jehangir Alibhai Merchant, everyone wondered why they were labelled JAM, but my dad had a sweet tooth, anyway) had been assigned to the box containing the album. I am deeply happy to post a few images from the voluminous album of tributes to my mum by the London students. I hope to be able to scan as well as OCR a few more pages from the album highlighting the impact of her contribution to religious education in the UK, and to publish another post sometime in the near future.

Mrs Merchant retirement card from students and teachers of BUI London England
Mrs. Merchant admires a beautiful card presented to her during her retirement from ITREB for the UK, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.
Tribute to Mrs. Merchant by Ismaili students in the UK on retirement from ITREB
A tribute by a BUI student to Mrs. Merchant, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.
Mr and Mrs Merchant farewell party.
Mr. Merchant makes a point during his address at the farewell party honouring him and Mrs. Merchant (left) for the services they rendered as religious education teachers and Waezin with ITREB, UK, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.


The Gentle Mrs. Merchant: A Letter from a Student

Mrs. Merchant with senior students of Central London BUI
Mr. and Mrs Merchant with the Darkhana Jamatkhana and ITREB UK leadership, and teachers and senior students of BUI Central London, UK, July 1992. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.


…..We are all gathered here today to say Good-Bye to our dear Mrs. Merchant, What I would really like to do is to share with you a letter which I have written to Mrs. Merchant.

Dear Mrs. Merchant,

I am going back a good number of years when I recall that when I started religious training at [5] Palace Gate you were my first teacher and you have continued to be the gentle but strong influence in my life, for religious training does not end at 1:30 p.m. on Saturday but continues to be an integral part of our lives. I have spent many Saturdays listening and discussing in your classes and these are the roots of my understanding of my beautiful religion. Your constant guidance and willingness to answer the questions, however bizarre, never once a harsh word, or a change in the pitch of your voice, however much we tried your patience, makes you a role model for us. Yes, believe or not Mrs. M. I now come in to teach the little children and I will try and use the same gentle but impossible to say No! manner when asking a child to take a vara [recitation of Dua, Farman, Ginan etc. in Jamatkhana]…. It is thanks to personal touches and willingness to do anything for your students that makes you that special person that you are….

Story continues below

BUI students at Mr and Mrs Merchant retirement party
A group of BUI students perform a recitation at the retirement party in honour of Mr. and Mrs. Merchant who served as missionaries and religious education teachers with ITREB UK. Photo: Jehangir Merchant Family Collection.

If we have a vara we can be sure a day or so before the phone would ring and the familiar voice would say, “Beta, you were not in Jamatkhana today, why? How are you doing in your exams? I will pray for you. Are you ready for your vara? Can I hear it over the phone?”

This kind of dedication is rare and we are the lucky few who received it. Well Mrs. Merchant, today we pray for you, that you will always find peace and satisfaction and find more children to benefit from your softly softly approach so that they can become staunch Ismailis and may they also experience the love and confidence we have enjoyed.

We love you and we will miss you. Don’t forget us for we will never forget you. Love from Shaheen and all the others in London.


You Will Be in Our Hearts and Prayers Forever

Mrs Merchant Aga Khan Diamond Jubilee Simerg
Alwaeza Malek J. Merchant (June 9, 1931 – January 21, 2021), pictured in Lisbon, Portugal, in July 2018, during the Diamond Jubilee of Mawlana Hazar Imam, His Highness the Aga Khan.

Mrs. Merchant was a truly beautiful soul, a deeply caring mother and grandmother as well as a fantastic teacher and an Alwaeza (missionary) loved by thousands around the world.

I humbly and sincerely ask everyone to join the family in praying that Alwaeza Malek Merchant’s soul may rest in eternal peace. Ameen.

Date posted: January 21, 2022.


Simerg welcomes your feedback. Please complete the LEAVE A REPLY form below or click Leave a comment. Your letter may be edited for length and brevity, and is subject to moderation.

Before leaving this website please take a moment to visit Simerg’s Table of Contents for links to hundreds of thought provoking pieces on a vast array of subjects including faith and culture, history and philosophy, and arts and letters to name a few. Also, visit Simerg’s sister websites Barakah, dedicated to His Highness the Aga Khan, and Simergphotos.